Industry in the US is currently capable of large-scale liquid fermentation for production of many common Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs). Large-scale solid and semi-solid fermentation methods have also been developed for MPCAs which do not grow or sporulate well in liquid fermentation. Recent emphasis in formulation research has been in the entrapment of MPCA propagules within a cross-linked matrix of organic polymers such as alginate, polyacrylamide, or carrageenan. Final formulations are uniform granules which are compatible with current agricultural equipment. Most MPCAs survive these formulation processes well and have a shelf-life of several months to a few years. These formulations are relatively inexpensive and permits addition of nutrient bases, pesticides, or other compounds which may confer a selective advantage on the MPCA. Other delivery systems include liquids, dusts, gels, and pastes which are applied to foliage, soil, wounds, and seeds or seedpieces.
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