The results of a study determining the effect of carrier temperature on the emulsification or dispersion and redispersion of commercial pesticide formulations are detailed. A series of commercially available emulsifiable concentrate, liquid flowable and dry flowable formulations were evaluated in waters of varying hardness and temperature. This study was extended to several model emulsfiable concentrate systems to determine what adjustments in emulsifier type were required to achieve consistent emulsion performance in water varying in temperature.
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