SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 26 November 2021

Adhesive Attachments: An Examination of Epoxy and Limestone Anchors


Epoxy-set anchors have been used as an attachment method for construction applications into clay masonry and concrete backup for many years. There has been an increasing prevalence to use epoxy-set stainless-steel attachments in dimension stone due to the quick set time and connection strength of these anchors. Several recent failures associated with adhesive set anchors have led to better understanding the history of anchors both in new stone construction as well as retrofit repair anchors. These recent failures led to a desire to review the history of stone adhesive anchors and perform laboratory testing related to the performance of anchors during thermal cycling. In this paper we present a brief history of stone attachments, a review of current published standards, and the results of recent research on thermal cycling and the effect of epoxy in confined holes in limestone attachments. We also offer guidance on avoiding the potential for failure in similar applications.

Author Information

Freedland, Joshua, D.
Bulley & Andrews Masonry Restoration, LLC, Chicago, IL, US
Naggatz, Steven, G.
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL, US
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Pages: 122–138
DOI: 10.1520/STP162820200012
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7703-1
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7702-4