Historically, 5 to 20 % of combat casualties are related to burn injury. In most recent conflicts, the highest percentage of burn injury was to the hands followed by the head (face and neck). Currently, there are no standard tests or test forms to evaluate the protection provided by headgear or hand wear (or both) in a fire scenario. Both the hands (e.g., palm, fingers) and face contain more bones that are located closer to the skin interface, less fat, and have complicated surfaces with very different skin thicknesses than the rest of the body. The unique geometry, tissue properties, high vascularization, high surface to volume ratio, and close proximity of the skin layer to bone in the hand requires a more complex and specialized skin model for assessing hand burn injury. Conventional three-dimensional (3D) body scanners cannot be used to scan the hand; they acquire the image too slowly to be compatible with natural hand and body movement. The utilization of a high-frequency ultrasound scanning system provides greater fidelity in the range of definition, sensitivity, and depth of penetration in obtaining 3D hand geometry and skin thicknesses at various locations. When testing garments in fire scenarios, it becomes increasingly apparent that the fit and design of the garment play an important role in both the degree and total predicted burn injury. Technological advances have allowed the development of anthropometrically correct manikins not only for males but for females. In this presentation, we will explore the use of additive manufacturing techniques, utilizing high-temperature, fire retardant materials and coatings, and a method to incorporate 3D anthropometrically correct computer models obtained from current anthropometric databases as well as in vivo ultrasonic scanning of hands into the next generation of instrumented manikins and test forms.