In vitro studies were undertaken with the use of human peripheral blood monocytes to investigate the toxicity of titanium aluminium vanadium alloy particles and their ability to induce the release of mediators reported to be involved in bone resorption around prostheses. Wear particles were produced that were of comparable size and concentration and representative of those found around failed prostheses. The titanium aluminium vanadium alloy particles, whilst non-toxic, strongly stimulated the release of prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest bone resorption and implant loosening may result from mediators released from stimulated macrophages after exposure to titanium aluminium vanadium alloy wear particles.
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