The sediments deposited on the bottoms of seas, lakes, and rivers can be contaminated with hazardous and toxic substances as a result of the discharge of human activities. Therefore, since the natural remediation process cannot be expected, contaminated or polluted as well as highly organic sediments must be treated as waste and be properly disposed for human health and environmental protection.
One method of disposal may be to remove the sediments by dredging and to treat them with a proper technique. The main problems in the dredging method are as follows: 1) Since sediments usually have very high water content, it is necessary to decrease the volume and solidify them for the next procedure, e.g., landfill. (2) The leachates from the sediments should be treated also. It is required that the water to be discharged be kept at a quality satisfying “the level of standards.”
This paper describes an experimental study using a solidification system performed for the cleanup of the bottom of a river. To promote the solidification of the system, several agents, such as lime, cement, polymer, resin, etc., were used. The results show that these agents strongly influence the solidification characteristics of the sediments and the quality of the leachate from the sediments.