Bone cement particles were retrieved by enzyme digestion of membranes from revision arthroplasty procedures. These clinically retrieved particles were compared with bone cement particles fabricated in the laboratory using Howmedica's Simplex P bone cement. Three particle sizes, ranging from 230 to 380 μm, of both retrieved and fabricated bone cement were placed in cell cultures, consisting of homogeneous populations of B cells, T cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. After an incubation of 72 h, the culture supernatant was assessed for levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.
The fabricated particles showed higher levels of PGE2 in all sizes when compared with the retrieved particles. Fibroblasts showed a significant increase in PGE2 with both retrieved and fabricated particles in comparison with other cell types. There were no differences in IL-1 levels between the fabricated and retrieved bone cement particles.
In this cell culture system, fibroblasts seem to be potent producers of PGE2 secretion, regardless of the shape or size of the particles.