The use of liquid nitrogen freezers for low-temperature storage of cells and cell substrates is a common practice in cell banking. Assurance of proper storage temperatures in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen requires not only adequately designed cryogenic dewars, but verification of liquid levels and resulting working temperatures. Validation of liquid nitrogen freezers requires attention to several aspects of the storage system: (1) design of the freezers and inventory systems, (2) verification of the relationship of the liquid level to working temperature, (3) calibration of all testing equipment, and temperature and liquid level display units on the freezers, and (4) calibration and verification of all alarm systems. Validation procedures must be clearly delineated and followed, and should also include training of personnel and attention to safety issues.
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