SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 2000

Cold Starting and Pumpability Studies in Modern Engines — Results from the ASTM D02.07C Low Temperature Engine Performance Task Force Activities: Test Oil Selection and Rheological Analysis


Two series of test oils were obtained for the Low Temperature Engine Performance (LTEP) task force activities: (a) SAE 0W-30, 5W-30, 10W-30, 15W-40, 20W-50 and 25W-30 grades were fully on-specification commercial oils (LTEP 1–7), used in cold starting and Phase I pumpability studies, (b) experimental test oils for Phase II pumpability work (LTEP 20 series) either did not meet the then-current SAE J300 pumping viscosity (TP-1 MRV) limits, or showed significant D5133 gelation index values, and included nominal SAE 5W-30, 10W-30 and 15W-40 grades. LTEP participating labs provided rheological data on the oils including measurements by D 445, D 3829, D 4684, D 5133, and D 5293. Multi-temperature MRV and CCS measurements allowed correlation to the exact engine test temperatures by fitting viscosity and yield stress data to equations. The functional form of the equations is presented and explained, and the fitted coefficients are tabulated. Gelation index and gelation index temperature values, were simply averaged for each oil. For the D 3829 and D 4684 methods that measure yield stress in addition to viscosity, an adjustment was made to the measured viscosity before fitting, to allow for yield stress effects.

Author Information

Girshick, FW
Infineum USA LP, Linden, NJ
De Paz, EF
Consumers Union, Yonkers, NY
May, CJ
Imperial Oil, Sarnia, Ont., Canada
Henderson, KO
Cannon Instrument Co., State College, PA
Rhodes, RB
Infineum, USA LP, Houston, TX
Tseregounis, S
General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI
Ying, LH
Infineum USA LP, Linden, NJ
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 16–18
DOI: 10.1520/STP14475S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5436-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2857-6