The application of vitrification technology to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed-waste treatment problems is discussed in terms of the requirement to satisfy a variety of constraints imposed on glass formulation development and process design or selection. The major classes of vitrification technologies are briefly described and waste stream characterization requirements are discussed. Each of the key constraints on glass formulation development - economics, processability, and product performance - are broken down into the principal factors that determine these qualities. Factors affecting the selection of appropriate processes and process operating conditions for a particular waste treatment problem are discussed. Particular attention is paid to processing temperature selection with respect to off-gas and waste loading trade-offs. A simple model showing the benefits of off-gas recycle for problems involving volatile inorganic contaminants is described.
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