A belt abrasion tester is described. It consists of an electric motor which drives an OP 60 aluminium oxide grit belt at 8 m/s. The upper horizontal run of the belt is supported by a 25 mm thick steel plate. The sample is fixed to a rigid horizontal pendulum arm pivoted two metres from the sample. The arm can be raised so that the sample is up to 1.5 m above the belt surface before it is released to fall onto the moving belt. The sample face that is abraded is 50 mm in diameter. The static force between the sample and the belt is 49 N or 25 kPa. Two drop heights are normally used, 1.0 m to simulate abrasion in the initial impact and sliding phase and 50 mm to simulate only the sliding phase of an accident. The time to abrade a hole in the sample is measured using two trigger wires, one in front of the sample and one behind. These are connected via low-voltage relays to an electronic timer. Abrasion times of leathers and fabrics are generally 0.2–10 s. Relative abrasion resistance is calculated by reference to the abrasion time of a standard cotton canvas.
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