SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1997

Renovation of Septic Effluent in a Stratified Sand Filter


Where soils are unsuitable for traditional filter fields, a sand filter may be used to renovate septic effluent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the renovation of chemical and biological components of septic tank effluent in a newly constructed stratified sand filter. The sand filter consisted of three layers of sand that decreased in coarseness with depth. The sand filter inflow NH4-N levels increased for 25 d with a mean level of 43 mg/L during the 864-d study. The outflow NO3-N con-centrations stabilized at 32 mg/L from 25 to 510 d. Inflow P reached a steady-state concentration of 16 mg/L while outflow P was <0.2 mg/L until 25 d. Thereafter, P outflow concentrations increased and had a mean value of 10 mg/L. Fecal coliform removal averaged 99.97% during the first 51 d. The stratified sand filter may provide an alternative wastewater disposal system for many locations.

Author Information

Nichols, DJ
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
Wolf, DC
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
Gross, MA
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
Rutledge, EM
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 235–247
DOI: 10.1520/STP13801S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5376-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2420-2