EPA assesses the environmental fate, hazards, and risks of all new industrial chemicals in the U.S. prior to their commercial manufacture in or import into this country. From 1979 through 1992 almost 22,000 new chemical premanufacture notifications (PMN's) were submitted for evaluation with current submissions averaging about 2,000/year. Within 90 days decisions must be made whether to allow each chemicals manufacture or import. There is no requirement to do testing and only about 5% of the PMN's contain any chemical fate or ecotoxicological test data. This has resulted in the development and use of general and quantitative chemical structure activity relationships (SAR/QSAR's) for estimating a chemical's physical/chemical properties, ability to degrade and bioconcentrate, and its toxicity to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and algae. QSARs are also being used to screen for these characteristics in the over 70,000 existing chemicals on the TSCA Inventory.