SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1993

Observation of Coach Behaviors During Different Game Score Differentials


The purpose of this study was to verify if the behaviors of hockey coaches at the Bantam level (ages 14 to 15) change during different game score differentials. Sixty-five games were videotaped using a split-screen technique that allowed the coder to see and hear the behaviors of the coaches as well as the ongoing play on the ice. Each game was coded using an observation form developed to assess seven different coach behaviors. The results showed that when they were losing, coaches (n = 23) tended to disagree more with the referee than when they were winning. Also, when losing, the coaches exhibited conflicting behaviors such as encouraging their players to respect the rules while at the same time showing their disagreement with these rules. In general, although the coaches displayed few behaviors to encourage aggression directly during a game, their behavior could play a major role in influencing aggressive acts in their players when losing.

Author Information

Côté, J
University of Ottawa, School of Human Kinetics, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Trudel, P
University of Ottawa, School of Human Kinetics, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Bernard, D
Laval University, Quebec, Canada
Boileau, R
Laval University, Quebec, Canada
Marcotte, G
Laval University, Quebec, Canada
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Developed by Committee: F08
Pages: 78–87
DOI: 10.1520/STP13125S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5256-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1873-7