SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1998

Admixture Enhanced Controlled Low-Strength Material for Direct Underwater Injection With Minimal Cross-Contamination


Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high-range water-reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance Controlled Low-Strength Materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures that would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated before release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

Author Information

Hepworth, HK
Northern Arizona University, Powell, TN
Davidson, JS
Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN
Hooyman, JL
Marquette University, Oak Ridge, TN
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Developed by Committee: C09
Pages: 108–123
DOI: 10.1520/STP13066S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5383-7
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2477-6