SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1998

Design and Testing Controlled Low-Strength Materials (CLSM) Using Clean Coal Ash


The major objective of this project was to develop mixture proportions for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) using clean coal ash obtained from atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SOx and NOx control technologies. The specific ashes used for this project were: (1) circulating fluidized bed boiler fly ash and bottom ash and (2) stoker - type boiler fly ash and bottom ash. These two coal ash samples were characterized for physical and chemical properties. Chemical properties and water leaching tests were also performed on the hardened CLSM. Many initial CLSM mixtures were developed by blending the two types of ash.

Tests conducted on the final three selected CLSM mixtures included compressive strength, bleeding, setting and hardening, settlement, length change of hardened CLSM, permeability, mineralogy, and chemical water leach testing. Results show that acceptable CLSM material can be developed by blending the fluidized bed boiler ash with the stoker boiler ash. Recommendations for a pilot scale manufacturing application of the three CLSM mixtures were made based upon the lab test results.

Author Information

Naik, TR
the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Kraus, RN
Center for By-Products Utilization, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
Sturzl, RF
Manitowoc Public Utilities, Manitowoc, WI
Ramme, BW
Combustion By-Products Utilization, Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Milwaukee, WI
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Developed by Committee: D18
Pages: 27–42
DOI: 10.1520/STP13060S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5383-7
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2477-6