Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a hazard evaluation of a pilot project to examine three methods for cleaning a building that was grossly contaminated with lead-based paint, prior to future renovation work. Three two-man crews cleaned six rooms each, using each method for two rooms. Personal and area air samples were obtained during each cleaning activity, and surface wipe samples were taken before and after cleaning. Also, paint samples were obtained and analyzed. Although the overall reduction in floor surface lead concentration was found to be significant, post-cleaning surface lead concentrations did not vary significantly with the method, concentrations of lead in paint, area air, or pre-cleaning surface concentrations. Overall the method, mean paint lead concentration, pre-cleaning surface lead concentration, and work crew were jointly significantly associated with observed variation in mean personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area airborne lead concentrations. However, the correlation between mean paint lead concentration and PBZ exposures was very weak. Results indicated the potential for worker overexposures with all three cleaning methods.