There is widespread evidence that elevated levels of lead in children's blood may result from exposure to house dust and soil containing lead. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a comprehensive review of the scientific literature investigating the sources of the lead contamination of soil. This review focused on the evidence, cited in the literature, that a given source of lead was responsible for elevated soil-lead concentrations. Three primary sources of elevated soil lead were reported: 1) lead-based paint, 2) leaded gasoline emissions, and 3) lead point-source emitters. A range of analytical approaches were utilized to support the assertion that a particular source of lead contributed to surrounding elevated soil-lead levels. The interaction among the three sources, especially in urban environments, makes it difficult to ascertain which source might be the primary culprit in a particular environment. The highest soil-lead concentrations, however, are generally the result of peeling lead-based paint.