The Comprehensive Abatement Performance (CAP) Study  was a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project designed to follow up on the FHA Lead-Based Paint Abatement Demonstration  conducted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The primary objective of the CAP Study was to assess the long-term efficacy of the various abatement methods employed during the HUD Demonstration. To address this objective, the U.S. EPA collected dust and soil samples at each of the 52 HUD Demonstration houses in Denver, Colorado, approximately two years after the abatements had been completed. This paper is the first in a series of three papers ,  describing the CAP study. We present the experimental design employed to collect data in the study, provide a characterization of lead levels in dust and soil at these houses two years after abatement, and, finally, compare these levels with those in other abatement efficacy studies.