SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1994

30 Plus Years of Head and Neck Injuries - Primate and Human Models' Responses to Energy Load and Forces


This paper reports on a carefully controlled series of 4 groups of experiments using animal models, examining head and spinal cord injuries. In the first group of experiments, animals were subjected to both direct single and repeated applications of direct controlled impact to the head, using the concussion gun designed by Foltz, et al. causing translational (linear) acceleration. In a second group of experiments controlled nondeforming rotational acceleration was directed through a known path near C7-T1, using Head Acceleration Device II (HADII). The third group consisted of animal experiments using Rhesus monkeys undergoing -Gx impact vector acceleration of the restraint torsi but freely movable head and neck, and in the fourth group the same type of indirect impact acceleration was undertaken using +Gx impact vector acceleration. In each group detailed histological examinations were carried out using a Spielmeyer assortment.

Author Information

Unterharnscheidt, FJ
Neuroscience, Inc., New Orleans, LA
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Developed by Committee: F08
Pages: 177–202
DOI: 10.1520/STP12813S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5282-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-1886-7