SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 2004

Type, Scale, and Adaptive Narrative: Keeping Models of Salmon, Toxicology and Risk Alive to the World


In modern day toxicology, problems arise in modeling complex ecosystems, such as the Columbia River system. There remain an abundance of models for which responsibility of assumptions is unaccounted and between which cohesion lacks. Models should be evaluated independently, taking into mind issues of scale and type in order to make sure the models actively change in accordance with the adaptive system they try to represent. The authors here suggest using narratives to weave together the inconsistent models. Narratives allow scientists to take responsibility for their assumptions and facilitate improved coherence between models. Problem solving engines, such as soft systems methodology, may then be used to achieve these modeling and adaptive management goals.

Author Information

McCormick, RJ
Compliance Services International, Tacoma, WA
Zellmer, AJ
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
Allen, TFH
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
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Developed by Committee: E47
Pages: 69–83
DOI: 10.1520/STP11943S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5501-5
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-3476-8