SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1997

Constructing and Maintaining Safe Playing Surfaces


A primary goal when constructing or maintaining baseball and softball fields should be to provide a playing surface that enhances both player safety and player performance. Field-related player injury on baseball and softball fields may be due to factors such as field hardness, traction, ball bounce and speed, and sliding surface properties. Various methods are available for objective assessment of hardness, traction, and ball responses, and they should be used to assess a range of turfed and skinned areas. The quality of the playing surface is greatly affected by soil properties, turfgrass characteristics, wear, and interactions among these factors. Appropriate construction and maintenance procedures should be utilized to provide uniform, safe, and playable surfaces. Guidelines for construction and maintenance are of value to those planning, constructing, and maintaining fields, and several standard guides are being prepared within the framework of ASTM.

Author Information

Waddington, DV
Penn State University, University Park, PA
McNitt, AS
Penn State University, University Park, PA
Landschoot, PJ
Penn State University, University Park, PA
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Developed by Committee: F08
Pages: 107–113
DOI: 10.1520/STP11871S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5368-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2475-2