SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 1997

Testing within the Continuum of Multiple Lubrication and Failure Mechanisms


The inherent difficulty of bench testing for the tribological performance of hydraulic fluids is the interaction of multiple lubrication and failure mechanisms. The engineer judges the performance limits in descriptive terms relating to what the load bearing surfaces have experienced. The lubrication and failure pathway that leads to the final surface condition is at the mercy of what lubrication and failure mechanisms have been invoked. Lubrication mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary can be isolated with specialized testing, along with failure mechanisms, such as those described in general terms of wear, scuffing, and pitting. The interaction and competitive nature of these mechanisms, which exist in hardware, makes bench testing a nightmare.

A rational approach using a highly flexible and computerized test machine, WAM3, is described. The approach demonstrates how performance attributes of fluids and materials can be evaluated as they are made to travel through multiple lubrication and failure pathways. The testing protocol is terminated when the test specimen's surface reaches the same failure condition the engineer uses to judge performance limits of component hardware. Testing pathways are demonstrated that lead to wear, scuffing and micro-pitting. Along the testing pathway, viscous film-forming attributes and chemical boundary lubrication attributes of the fluid are characterized. Tests conducted with a range of fluid types, including two hydraulic fluids, demonstrate a wide range of traction, viscous film-forming and boundary film attributes. The continuum approach, which maps out performance in terms of hardware relevant criteria, provides a means to determine the impact of development strategies based on fluid and material technologies.

Author Information

Wedeven, LD
Wedeven Associates Inc., Edgement, PA
Totten, GE
Union Carbide Corporation, Tarrytown, NY
Bishop, RJ
Union Carbide Corporation, Tarrytown, NY
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 3–20
DOI: 10.1520/STP11832S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5366-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-2422-6