This paper reviews some of the laboratory Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) protocols published to date. A history of the development of these techniques and their application in effluents is presented. Also presented are examples of applications of these techniques, a review of selected techniques, a summary of individual techniques and the chemicals they remove or render nontoxic, and case studies. Many laboratory TIE techniques are available beyond those published by USEPA, and a myriad of techniques have been successfully applied. The published techniques were found to be generally “investigative” or “applied” in nature. It is concluded from this review that the generally chemical-specific investigative techniques and the applied techniques, which do not emphasize the identification of specific toxicants, can both be useful under various conditions. However, it is recommended that as a means to preliminarily evaluate fullscale wastewater treatment options and possibly identify specific toxicants amenable to “upstream” control, laboratory TIE methodologies combining both approaches be used.
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