SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 2004

Intimidation in Ice Hockey: An Exploratory Assessment


The purpose of this investigation was to examine the components of intimidation in ice hockey and to determine their effects on players, coaches, and referees. In a pilot test, hockey coaches (N = 17) from three levels of participation were invited to an informal, exploratory symposium to assess their opinions on the role of intimidation in ice hockey. The following themes emerged: a) coaches' behavior and expectations, b) observable behavior, c) player's perceived role, and d) sociological factors. A preliminary intimidation model was developed. A survey including 80 open- ended questionnaires designed to stimulate discussion on the definition of intimidation, methods used to intimidate, and factors perceived as intimidating, was distributed to players (N = 66), coaches (N = 8), and referees (N = 6). The data were analyzed using qualitative methods [1,2] and intimidation was defined. Results support a theoretical model, which serves as a point of departure for future research and visually depicts the components of intimidation and their interactions.

Author Information

Crawford, BJ
Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center
Stuart, MJ
Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
Smith, AM
Mayo Medical School, Rochester, MN
Brennan, RD
Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center
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Developed by Committee: F08
Pages: 26–39
DOI: 10.1520/STP11606S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5493-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-3473-7