SYMPOSIA PAPER Published: 01 January 2002

The Evolution and Development of Lateral Anchorage Systems in Masonry Cladding Systems


Early skeletal frame buildings utilized numerous exterior cladding materials. Brick, terra cotta, and stone were all used, with economics frequently dictating both the location and quantity of materials. Early methods of anchoring these masonry cladding materials were varied and frequently experimental. With increased understanding of the behavior of cladding systems relative to both environmental forces as well as interaction with the structural systems, lateral anchorage systems evolved and achieved better performance. This paper will review the historical development of lateral anchorage systems over the past 125 years. A review of products, materials, code requirements and representative details will be presented. The intent of the paper will be to present a comparative timeline of lateral anchorage development to assist in understanding the concurrent evolution of masonry facade cladding systems.

Author Information

Gerns, EA
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL
Chan, LM
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL
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Developed by Committee: C15
Pages: 155–169
DOI: 10.1520/STP11040S
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-5470-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-3450-8