New Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2100 is the first reference material in the world for the property fracture toughness for any class material. The SRM is for fracture toughness of ceramics and may be used with any ceramic fracture toughness test method, but is optimized for methods that use beams in bending. The SRM complements the new ASTM Test Method for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature (C 1421) as well as three International Standards Organization (ISO) draft standards now under development. This SRM, for which the fracture toughness is known with a high accuracy and high precision, should dramatically improve fracture toughness testing and enhance data quality around the world. This paper describes SRM 2100 and its creation.