The reliable determination of the permeation characteristics of chemical protective materials and material systems is vital for the development and assessment of effective personal protective clothing and equipment. ASTM F739 describes the necessary capabilities for rigorous testing of the permeation characteristics of protective materials. Currently available technologies are limited in their ability to test chemical protective materials for permeability to certain classes of hazardous substances such as toxic industrial chemicals, chemical warfare agents (CWAs), and CWA simulants. In an effort to overcome these limitations, a dual-mode Compact Integrated Analytical Swatch Testing System (C-IASTS) has been developed that combines an advanced test cell design with rigorous temperature, flow, and pressure control. The automated, dual-mode, five test cell instrument allows both convective (dynamic) and static tests of porous and nonporous chemical protective materials in a manner that is compliant with the requirements of ASTM F739. Performance characterization of the new dual-mode C-IASTS demonstrated sufficient detectability, measurement precision, and time resolution to allow the determination of breakthrough time, steady state and maximum permeation rates, and cumulative permeation and an ability to produce a well-defined permeation curve. Current development and testing has been directed toward CWA simulants and military protective material systems, as well as commercial polymers, textiles, and other chemical selective barriers.