ASTM's wood standards are instrumental in the evaluation and testing of the physical and chemical properties of a wide range of wood and wood-based products. Wooden materials covered here include timber, lumber, wood-base fibers, commercial softwoods and hardwoods, wood preservatives, laminated timber, and composite lumber to name a few. These materials are notably used in the fabrication of construction materials such as structural panels and members, construction poles, and log buildings. These wood standards are helpful in guiding wooden material and product manufacturers and end-users in their proper testing and fabrication procedures to ensure acceptable quality towards safe and satisfactory use.

Wood Standards

ASTM's wood standards are instrumental in the evaluation and testing of the physical and chemical properties of a wide range of wood and wood-based products. Wooden materials covered here include timber, lumber, wood-base fibers, commercial softwoods and hardwoods, wood preservatives, laminated timber, and composite lumber to name a few. These materials are notably used in the fabrication of construction materials such as structural panels and members, construction poles, and log buildings. These wood standards are helpful in guiding wooden material and product manufacturers and end-users in their proper testing and fabrication procedures to ensure acceptable quality towards safe and satisfactory use.

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Fire Performance of Wood

D3201/D3201M-20 Standard Test Method for Hygroscopic Properties of Fire-Retardant Wood and Wood-Based Products

D6841-21 Standard Practice for Calculating Design Value Treatment Adjustment Factors for Fire-Retardant-Treated Lumber

D7857-16 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Flexural Properties and Internal Bond Strength of Fire-Retarded Mat-Formed Wood Structural Composite Panels Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

E69-15 Standard Test Method for Combustible Properties of Treated Wood by the Fire-Tube Apparatus

D6305-21 Standard Practice for Calculating Bending Strength Design Adjustment Factors for Fire-Retardant-Treated Plywood Roof Sheathing

D2898-10(2017) Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing

D5664-17 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Effects of Fire-Retardant Treatments and Elevated Temperatures on Strength Properties of Fire-Retardant Treated Lumber

D5516-18 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Flexural Properties of Fire-Retardant Treated Softwood Plywood Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

D8223-19 Standard Practice for Evaluation of Fire-Retardant Treated Laminated Veneer Lumber

Forests

D7612-21 Standard Practice for Categorizing Wood and Wood-Based Products According to Their Fiber Sources

D5536-17 Standard Practice for Sampling Forest Trees for Determination of Clear Wood Properties

D7480-21 Standard Guide for Evaluating the Attributes of a Forest Management Plan

Fundamental Test Methods and Properties

D1324-83(1993) Standard Specification for Modified Wood (Withdrawn 2000)

D7438-20 Standard Practice for Field Calibration and Application of Hand-Held Moisture Meters

D6782-19 Standard Test Methods for Standardization and Calibration of In-Line Dry Lumber Moisture Meters

D4761-19 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Properties of Lumber and Wood-Based Structural Materials

D1109-21 Standard Test Method for 1 % Sodium Hydroxide Solubility of Wood

D1166-21 Standard Test Method for Methoxyl Groups in Wood and Related Materials

D6874-21 Standard Test Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Stiffness of Wood and Wood-Based Materials Using Transverse Vibration or Stress Wave Propagation

D1110-21 Standard Test Methods for Water Solubility of Wood

D1107-21 Standard Test Method for Ethanol-Toluene Solubility of Wood,

D1105-21 Standard Test Method for Preparation of Extractive-Free Wood

D1106-21 Standard Test Method for Acid-Insoluble Lignin in Wood,

D1108-21 Standard Test Method for Dichloromethane Solubles in Wood,

D4444-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Laboratory Standardization and Calibration of Hand-Held Moisture Meters

D4442-20 Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

D6958-20 Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Side-Bonding Potential of Wood Coatings

D1762-84(2021) Standard Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Wood Charcoal

D1102-84(2021) Standard Test Method for Ash in Wood

D4933-16(2021) Standard Guide for Moisture Conditioning of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

D7469-22 Standard Test Methods for End Joints in Structural Wood Products

D143-22 Standard Test Methods for Small Clear Specimens of Timber

D2394-17(2022) Standard Test Methods for Simulated Service Testing of Wood and Wood-Based Finish Flooring

D198-22 Standard Test Methods of Static Tests of Lumber in Structural Sizes

D1666-22 Standard Test Methods for Conducting Machining Tests of Wood and Wood-Base Panel Materials

D6815-22 Standard Specification for Evaluation of Duration of Load and Creep Effects of Wood and Wood-Based Products

D2395-17(2022) Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

Lumber and Engineered Wood Products

D5456-21e1 Standard Specification for Evaluation of Structural Composite Lumber Products

D7199-20 Standard Practice for Establishing Characteristic Values for Reinforced Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam) Beams Using Mechanics-Based Models

D1990-19 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Visually-Graded Dimension Lumber from In-Grade Tests of Full-Size Specimens

D5457-21a Standard Specification for Computing Reference Resistance of Wood-Based Materials and Structural Connections for Load and Resistance Factor Design

D7341-21 Standard Practice for Establishing Characteristic Values for Flexural Properties of Structural Glued Laminated Timber by Full-Scale Testing

D7374-21 Standard Practice for Evaluating Elevated Temperature Performance of Adhesives Used in End-Jointed Lumber

D7470-21 Standard Practice for Evaluating Elevated Temperature Performance of End-Jointed Lumber Studs

D2555-17a Standard Practice for Establishing Clear Wood Strength Values

D3737-18e1 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Properties for Structural Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam)

D6570-18a Standard Practice for Assigning Allowable Properties for Mechanically Graded Lumber

D7031-11(2019) Standard Guide for Evaluating Mechanical and Physical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composite Products

D5055-19e1 Standard Specification for Establishing and Monitoring Structural Capacities of Prefabricated Wood I-Joists

D7032-21 Standard Specification for Establishing Performance Ratings for Wood-Plastic Composite and Plastic Lumber Deck Boards, Stair Treads, Guards, and Handrails

D245-22 Standard Practice for Establishing Structural Grades and Related Allowable Properties for Visually Graded Lumber

D2915-17(2022) Standard Practice for Sampling and Data-Analysis for Structural Wood and Wood-Based Products

Panel Products

D1554-10(2016) Standard Terminology Relating to Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

D3044-16 Standard Test Method for Shear Modulus of Wood-Based Structural Panels

D6643-01(2016) Standard Test Method for Testing Wood-Base Panel Corner Impact Resistance

D2719-19 Standard Test Methods for Wood Structural Panels in Shear Through-the-Thickness

D3043-17 Standard Test Methods for Structural Panels in Flexure

D2718-18 Standard Test Methods for Structural Panels in Planar Shear (Rolling Shear)

D3501-05a(2018) Standard Test Methods for Wood-Based Structural Panels in Compression

D3499-19 Standard Test Method for Toughness of Wood Structural Panels

D7433-19 Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Water Absorption of Overlaid Wood-Based Panels

D1038-19 Standard Terminology Relating to Veneer, Plywood, and Wood Structural Panels

D7770-12(2019) Standard Test Method for Collection of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted During Simulated Manufacturing of Engineered Wood Products Via a Sealed Caul Plate Method

D7519-11 Standard Test Method for Internal Bond Strength and Thickness Swell of Cellulosic-Based Fiber and Particle Panels After Repeated Wetting (Withdrawn 2020)

D2164-83(2000) Standard Methods of Testing Structural Insulating Roof Deck (Withdrawn 2005)

D1037-12(2020) Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

D3500-20 Standard Test Methods for Wood Structural Panels in Tension

D5651-21 Standard Test Method for Surface Bond Strength of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials

D7033-22 Standard Practice for Establishing Design Capacities for Oriented Strand Board (OSB) Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels

D5582-22 Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Levels from Wood Products Using a Desiccator

D6007-22 Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Concentrations in Air from Wood Products Using a Small-Scale Chamber

E1333-22 Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Concentrations in Air and Emission Rates from Wood Products Using a Large Chamber

Pole and Pile Products

D2899-12(2017) Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Stresses for Round Timber Piles

D1036-99(2017) Standard Test Methods of Static Tests of Wood Poles

D3957-09(2020) Standard Practices for Establishing Stress Grades for Structural Members Used in Log Buildings

D7381-07(2021)e1 Standard Practice for Establishing Allowable Stresses for Round Timbers for Piles from Tests of Full-Size Material

D25-12(2022) Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles

D3200-74(2022) Standard Specification and Test Method for Establishing Recommended Design Stresses for Round Timber Construction Poles

Terminology and Editorial

D1165-18 Standard Nomenclature of Commercial Hardwoods and Softwoods

D9-20 Standard Terminology Relating to Wood and Wood-Based Products

Treatments for Wood Products

D38-94(2000)e1 Standard Test Methods for Sampling Wood Preservatives Prior to Testing (Withdrawn 2006)

D390-92(1999) Standard Specification for Coal-Tar Creosote for the Preservative Treatment of Piles, Poles, and Timbers for Marine, Land, and Freshwater Use (Withdrawn 2006)

D367-94(2000)e1 Standard Test Method for Xylene-Insoluble Matter in Creosote (Withdrawn 2006)

D168-94(2000) Standard Test Method for Coke Residue of Creosote (Withdrawn 2006)

D453-94(2000)e1 Standard Test Method for Tar Acids in Creosote-Coal Tar Solutions (Withdrawn 2006)

D1625-71(2000) Standard Specification for Chromated Copper Arsenate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1860-95(2000) Standard Test Method for Moisture and Creosote-Type Preservative in Wood (Withdrawn 2006)

D1274-95(2000) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Pentachlorophenol (Withdrawn 2006)

D1627-94(2000) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Acid Copper Chromate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1325-94(2000) Standard Specification for Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate and Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1628-94(2000) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Chromated Copper Arsenate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1326-94(2000) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate and Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1858-63(2000) Standard Specification for Creosote-Petroleum Solution (Withdrawn 2006)

D1624-71(2000) Standard Specification for Acid Copper Chromate (Withdrawn 2006)

D1859-71(2000) Standard Specification for Petroleum Used for Blending with Creosote (Withdrawn 2006)

D2604-86(2000) Standard Specification for High-Boiling Hydrocarbon Solvent for Preparing Oil-Borne Preservative Solutions (Withdrawn 2006)

D2606-94(2000) Standard Test Method for Solubility of Pentachlorophenol in Heavy Hydrocarbon Solvents (Withdrawn 2006)

D3507-97(2000) Standard Test Methods for Penetration of Preservatives in Wood and for Differentiating Between Heartwood and Sapwood (Withdrawn 2008)

D5653-95(2000) Standard Specification for Copper Dimethyldithiocarbamate (Withdrawn 2006)

D5654-95(2000) Standard Specification for Ammoniacal Copper Quat Type B (ACQ-B)1 (Withdrawn 2006)

D5655-95(2000) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Copper Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC) Treated Wood by Colorimetry 1 (Withdrawn 2006)

D5584-94(2000) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Ammoniacal Copper Quat, Type B (ACQ-B) (Withdrawn 2006)

D4445-10(2019) Standard Test Method for Fungicides for Controlling Sapstain and Mold on Unseasoned Lumber (Laboratory Method)

D369-84(2002) Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity of Creosote Fractions and Residue (Withdrawn 2006)

D3873-01 Standard Test Method for Valency State of the Arsenic Component of Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate Solutions (Withdrawn 2006)

D1760-01 Standard Specification for Pressure Treatment of Timber Products (Withdrawn 2006)

D1413-07e1 Standard Test Method for Wood Preservatives by Laboratory Soil-Block Cultures (Withdrawn 2016)

D347-04 Standard Tables for Volume and Specific Gravity Correction for Creosote, Creosote-Coal Tar Solution and Coal Tar (Withdrawn 2006)

D1758-06 Standard Test Method of Evaluating Wood Preservatives by Field Tests with Stakes (Withdrawn 2015)

D2085-89(2002) Standard Test Method for Determining Chloride Used in Calculating Pentachlorophenol in Solutions or Wood (Lime Ignition Method) (Withdrawn 2006)

D4278-02 Standard Practice for Wet Ashing Procedure for Preparing Wood Samples for Inorganic Chemical Analysis (Withdrawn 2006)

D246-04a Standard Test Method for Distillation of Creosote and Creosote-Coal Tar Solutions (Withdrawn 2006)

D1272-56(2002) Standard Specification for Pentachlorophenol (Withdrawn 2006)

D368-89(2002) Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity of Creosote and Oil-Type Preservatives (Withdrawn 2006)

D3224-02 Standard Test Method for Water Solubility of Auxiliary Solvent for Wood Preserving Solutions (Withdrawn 2006)

D2278-06 Standard Test Method for Field Evaluation of Wood Preservatives in Round Post-Size Specimens (Withdrawn 2015)

D370-02e1 Standard Practice for Dehydration of Oil-Type Preservatives (Withdrawn 2006)

D2481-05 Standard Test Method for Accelerated Evaluation of Wood Preservatives for Marine Services by Means of Small Size Specimens (Withdrawn 2014)

D391-94(2000)e1 Standard Specification for Creosote-Coal Tar Solution (Withdrawn 2006)

D2017-05 Standard Test Method of Accelerated Laboratory Test of Natural Decay Resistance of Woods (Withdrawn 2014)

D3225-73(2002)e1 Standard Specification for Low-Boiling Hydrocarbon Solvent for Oil-Borne Preservatives (Withdrawn 2006)

D4064-01 Standard Practice for Preservative Treatment of Utility Poles by the Thermal Process (Withdrawn 2007)

D5583-06 Standard Test Method for Detection and Estimation of Retention of Wood Preservatives by Aspergillus Bioassaying (Withdrawn 2010)

D3345-22 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Evaluation of Wood for Resistance to Subterranean Termites

Wood Assemblies

D1761-20 Standard Test Methods for Mechanical Fasteners in Wood and Wood-Based Materials

D5652-21 Standard Test Methods for Single-Bolt Connections in Wood and Wood-Based Products

D7147-21 Standard Specification for Testing and Establishing Allowable Loads of Joist Hangers

D6513-21 Standard Practice for Calculating the Superimposed Load on Wood-frame Walls for Standard Fire-Resistance Tests

D7746-21 Standard Practice for Calculating the Superimposed Load on Wood-frame Floor-Ceiling Assemblies for Standard Fire-Resistance Tests

D6555-17 Standard Guide for Evaluating System Effects in Repetitive-Member Wood Assemblies

D8023-17 Standard Specification for Round Wood Dowels (Pegs) for Use in Wood Construction

D5764-97a(2018) Standard Test Method for Evaluating Dowel-Bearing Strength of Wood and Wood-Based Products

D5933-19 Standard Specification for 258-in. and 4-in. Diameter Metal Shear Plates for Use in Wood Constructions

D7672-19 Standard Specification for Evaluating Structural Capacities of Rim Board Products and Assemblies

D7989-21 Standard Practice for Demonstrating Equivalent In-Plane Lateral Seismic Performance to Wood-Frame Shear Walls Sheathed with Wood Structural Panels

D8391-22 Standard Specification for Demonstrating Equivalent Fire Performance for Wood-Based Floor Framing Members to Unprotected 2 by 10 Dimension Lumber or Equal-Sized Structural Composite Lumber

D5124-96(2022) Standard Practice for Testing and Use of a Random Number Generator in Lumber and Wood Products Simulation