ASTM's refractory standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and evaluating the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of various materials and products made of refractory. These materials, which are commonly made from the oxides of aluminum (alumina), silicon (silica), magnesium (magnesia), and calcium (lime), have the distinct characteristic of being able to retain physical and chemical stability at extremely high temperatures. These refractory standards help materials science laboratories, material processing companies, product manufacturers, and other producers and users of such materials and products in their proper fabrication and treatment procedures to ensure good quality and workmanship towards safe utilization.

Refractory Standards

ASTM's refractory standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and evaluating the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of various materials and products made of refractory. These materials, which are commonly made from the oxides of aluminum (alumina), silicon (silica), magnesium (magnesia), and calcium (lime), have the distinct characteristic of being able to retain physical and chemical stability at extremely high temperatures. These refractory standards help materials science laboratories, material processing companies, product manufacturers, and other producers and users of such materials and products in their proper fabrication and treatment procedures to ensure good quality and workmanship towards safe utilization.

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Chemical Behaviors

C768-99 Standard Practice for Drip Slag Testing Refractory Materials at High Temperature (Withdrawn 2004)

C288-20 Standard Test Method for Disintegration of Refractories in an Atmosphere of Carbon Monoxide

C863-00(2016) Standard Test Method for Evaluating Oxidation Resistance of Silicon Carbide Refractories at Elevated Temperatures

C607-88(2016) Standard Practice for Coking Large Shapes of Carbon-Bearing Materials

C454-10(2017) Standard Test Method for Disintegration of Carbon Refractories by Alkali

C492-92(2017)e1 Standard Test Method for Hydration of Granular Dead-Burned Refractory Dolomite

C456-18 Standard Test Method for Hydration Resistance of Basic Bricks and Shapes

C831-18 Standard Test Methods for Residual Carbon, Apparent Residual Carbon, and Apparent Carbon Yield in Coked Carbon-Containing Brick and Shapes

C544-18 Standard Test Method for Hydration of Dead-Burned Magnesite or Periclase Grain

C874-20 Standard Test Method for Rotary Slag Testing of Refractory Materials

Monolithics

C1446-19 Standard Test Method for Measuring Consistency of Self-Flowing Castable Refractories

C865-17 Standard Practice for Firing Refractory Concrete Specimens

C181-11(2018) Standard Test Method for Workability Index of Fireclay and High-Alumina Refractory Plastics

C1445-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Measuring Consistency of Castable Refractory Using a Flow Table

C1656-13(2018) Standard Guide for Measuring the Reactivity of Hydraulic Refractory Castables Using Exothermic Profile

C1054-18 Standard Practice for Pressing and Drying Refractory Plastic and Ramming Mix Specimens

C179-14(2019) Standard Test Method for Drying and Firing Linear Change of Refractory Plastic and Ramming Mix Specimens

C860-15(2019) Standard Test Method for Determining the Consistency of Refractory Castable Using the Ball-In-Hand Test

C975-87(2020) Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Ramming Products by Pressing

C862-16(2020) Standard Practice for Preparing Refractory Concrete Specimens by Casting

C903-15(2020) Standard Practice for Preparing Refractory Specimens by Cold Gunning

C973-87(2020) Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Gunning Products by Pressing

C974-87(2020) Standard Practice for Preparing Test Specimens from Basic Refractory Castable Products by Casting

Physical Properties

C1444-00 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Angle of Repose of Free-Flowing Mold Powders (Withdrawn 2005)

C134-95(2016) Standard Test Methods for Size, Dimensional Measurements, and Bulk Density of Refractory Brick and Insulating Firebrick

C830-00(2016) Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Liquid Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of Refractory Shapes by Vacuum Pressure

C1407-98(2016) Standard Practice for Calculating Areas, Volume, and Linear Change of Refractory Shapes

C210-95(2019) Standard Test Method for Reheat Change of Insulating Firebrick

C113-14(2019) Standard Test Method for Reheat Change of Refractory Brick

C577-19 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Refractories

C604-18 Standard Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Gas-Comparison Pycnometer

C135-96(2022) Standard Test Method for True Specific Gravity of Refractory Materials by Water Immersion

C20-00(2022) Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Water Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of Burned Refractory Brick and Shapes by Boiling Water

C92-95(2022)e1 Standard Test Methods for Sieve Analysis and Water Content of Refractory Materials

C357-07(2022)e1 Standard Test Method for Bulk Density of Granular Refractory Materials

C914-09(2022)e1 Standard Test Method for Bulk Density and Volume of Solid Refractories by Wax Immersion

C704/C704M-15(2022)e1 Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperature

Refractories for Glass

C621-09(2018) Standard Test Method for Isothermal Corrosion Resistance of Refractories to Molten Glass

C1223-19 Standard Test Method for Testing of Glass Exudation from AZS Fusion-Cast Refractories

C987-10(2019) Standard Test Method for Vapor Attack on Refractories for Furnace Superstructures

C1276-94(2005) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Viscosity of Mold Powders Above Their Melting Point Using a Rotational Viscometer (Withdrawn 2009)

Strength

C832-21 Standard Test Method for Measuring Thermal Expansion and Creep of Refractories Under Load

C16-03(2018) Standard Test Method for Load Testing Refractory Shapes at High Temperatures

C198-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Cold Bonding Strength of Refractory Mortar

C1099-07(2019) Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Carbon-Containing Refractory Materials at Elevated Temperatures

C1419-14(2020) Standard Test Method for Sonic Velocity in Refractory Materials at Room Temperature and Its Use in Obtaining an Approximate Young's Modulus

C885-87(2020) Standard Test Method for Young’s Modulus of Refractory Shapes by Sonic Resonance

C1548-02(2020) Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio of Refractory Materials by Impulse Excitation of Vibration

C583-15(2021) Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Refractory Materials at Elevated Temperatures

C133-97(2021) Standard Test Methods for Cold Crushing Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Refractories

C199-22 Standard Test Method for Pier Test for Refractory Mortars

The Joseph E. Kopanda Subcommittee for Editorial, Terminology and Classification

C435-93(1999) Standard Classification of Steel Pouring Pit Fireclay Refractories (Withdrawn 2001)

C71-12(2018) Standard Terminology Relating to Refractories

C1547-02(2018) Standard Classification for Fusion-Cast Refractory Blocks and Shapes

C467-14(2018) Standard Classification of Mullite Refractories

C861-93(2020) Standard Practice for Determining Metric Dimensions of Standard Series Refractory Brick and Shapes

C545-97(2022) Standard Classification of Zircon Refractories

C673-97(2022) Standard Classification of Fireclay and High-Alumina Plastic Refractories and Ramming Mixes

C909-18(2022) Standard Practice for Dimensions of a Modular Series of Refractory Brick and Shapes

C899-79(2022) Standard Practice for Use of Metric Units of Measure for Reporting Properties of Refractory Materials

C1190-18(2022) Standard Practice for Location of Test Specimens from Magnesia-Carbon and Impregnated Burned Basic Brick

C1655-06(2022) Standard Classification of Fireclay and High-Alumina Mortars

C27-98(2022) Standard Classification of Fireclay and High-Alumina Refractory Brick

C155-97(2022) Standard Classification of Insulating Firebrick

C401-12(2022) Standard Classification of Alumina and Alumina-Silicate Castable Refractories

C416-97(2022) Standard Classification of Silica Refractory Brick

C455-07(2022) Standard Classification of Chrome, Chrome-Magnesia, Magnesia-Chrome, and Magnesia Brick

Thermal Properties

C1100-88(1998) Standard Test Method for Ribbon Thermal Shock Testing of Refractory Materials (Withdrawn 2005)

C417-21 Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Unfired Monolithic Refractories

C108-46(2018) Standard Symbols for Heat Transmission

C24-09(2018) Standard Test Method for Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCE) of Fireclay and High-Alumina Refractory Materials

C201-93(2019) Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractories

C1113/C1113M-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractories by Hot Wire (Platinum Resistance Thermometer Technique)

C182-19 Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Firebrick

C202-19 Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Refractory Brick

C767-20 Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Refractories

C1171-16(2022) Standard Test Method for Quantitatively Measuring the Effect of Thermal Shock and Thermal Cycling on Refractories