ASTM's industrial hygiene and safety standards specify the materials and detail the test methods that are relevant in recognizing, assessing, and controlling the physical, chemical, and environmental hazards involved in the workplace that could disrupt worker's health and well-being. These standards include guides for the proper handling, transportation, and storage of specified substances and equipment, and specifications for proper protective clothing, workplace ergonomics, and ventilation design. These industrial hygiene and safety standards are instrumental in the enforcement of appropriate occupational hygiene measures that are relevant for the accreditation of industrial firms.

Industrial Hygiene Standards and Safety Standards

ASTM's industrial hygiene and safety standards specify the materials and detail the test methods that are relevant in recognizing, assessing, and controlling the physical, chemical, and environmental hazards involved in the workplace that could disrupt worker's health and well-being. These standards include guides for the proper handling, transportation, and storage of specified substances and equipment, and specifications for proper protective clothing, workplace ergonomics, and ventilation design. These industrial hygiene and safety standards are instrumental in the enforcement of appropriate occupational hygiene measures that are relevant for the accreditation of industrial firms.

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Biological

F2100-21 Standard Specification for Performance of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks

F1670/F1670M-17a Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Synthetic Blood

F1819-19 Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Synthetic Blood Using a Mechanical Pressure Technique

F2299/F2299M-03(2017) Standard Test Method for Determining the Initial Efficiency of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks to Penetration by Particulates Using Latex Spheres

F1862/F1862M-17 Standard Test Method for Resistance of Medical Face Masks to Penetration by Synthetic Blood (Horizontal Projection of Fixed Volume at a Known Velocity)

F1671/F1671M-22 Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Blood-Borne Pathogens Using Phi-X174 Bacteriophage Penetration as a Test System

F2101-22 Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Bacterial Filtration Efficiency (BFE) of Medical Face Mask Materials, Using a Biological Aerosol of Staphylococcus aureus

F2407/F2407M-22 Standard Specification for Surgical Gowns Intended for Use in Healthcare Facilities

F3352/F3352M-22 Standard Specification for Isolation Gowns Intended for Use in Healthcare Facilities

Chemicals

F1052-20 Standard Test Method for Pressure Testing Vapor Protective Suits

F1186-18 Standard Classification System for Chemicals According to Functional Groups

F739-20 Standard Test Method for Permeation of Liquids and Gases Through Protective Clothing Materials Under Conditions of Continuous Contact

F1296-08(2015) Standard Guide for Evaluating Chemical Protective Clothing

F1001-12(2017) Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials

F2053-00(2017) Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Airborne Particle Penetration Testing of Protective Clothing Materials

F1407-12(2017) Standard Test Method for Resistance of Chemical Protective Clothing Materials to Liquid Permeation—Permeation Cup Method

F2704-17a Standard Specification for Air-Fed Protective Ensembles

F1461-17 Standard Practice for Chemical Protective Clothing Program

F2061-17 Standard Practice for Chemical Protective Clothing: Wearing, Care, and Maintenance Instructions

F1301-18 Standard Practice for Labeling Chemical Protective Clothing

F2130-11(2018) Standard Test Method for Measuring Repellency, Retention, and Penetration of Liquid Pesticide Formulation Through Protective Clothing Materials

F1194-18 Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Chemical Permeation Testing of Materials Used in Protective Clothing

F1154-18 Standard Practices for Evaluating the Comfort, Fit, Function, and Durability of Protective Ensembles, Ensemble Elements, and Other Components

F2669-12(2018) Standard Performance Specification for Protective Clothing Worn by Operators Applying Pesticides

F2962-13 Standard Practice for Conformity Assessment of Protective Clothing Worn by Operators Applying Pesticides (Withdrawn 2019)

F2588-12(2020) Standard Test Method for Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST) for Protective Ensembles

F2815-10(2014) Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program (Withdrawn 2019)

F903-18 Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids

F1383-20 Standard Test Method for Permeation of Liquids and Gases Through Protective Clothing Materials Under Conditions of Intermittent Contact

F1359/F1359M-22 Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing or Protective Ensembles Under a Shower Spray While on a Manikin

Cold Cleaning

D4701-00(2020) Standard Specification for Technical Grade Methylene Chloride

D4995-10(2020) Standard Specification for Electronic and Degreasing Grades of 1,1,2–Trichloro 1,2,2,–Trifluoroethane Solvent

D6361/D6361M-98(2020) Standard Guide for Selecting Cleaning Agents and Processes

Drycleaning

D4081-16 Standard Specification for Drycleaning-Grade Perchloroethylene

Editorial

F1494-14 Standard Terminology Relating to Protective Clothing

Fire Extinguishing Agents

D8061-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of 2-Bromo-3,3,3-Trifluoro-1-Propene (CF3CBr=CH2)

D7326-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HFC Blend B (CH2FCF3, CHF2CF3, and CO2)

D6127-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HFC-23 (Trifluoromethane, CHF3)

D6126/D6126M-21 Standard Specification for HFC-23 (Trifluoromethane, CHF3)

D7323-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of IG-100 (Nitrogen)

D7815-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of Halon 1211, Bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2BrCl)

D7325-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of IG-541 N2, Ar, CO2

D7122-21 Standard Specification for HCFC Blend B (CF3CCl2H, Ar, and CF4)

D6065-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HFC-227ea 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (CF3CHFCF3)

D6541-21 Standard Specification for HFC-236fa, 1,1,1,3,3,3–Hexafluoropropane, (CF3CH2CF3)

D7327-21 Standard Specification for HFC Blend B (CH2FCF3, CHF2CF3, and CO2)

D7123-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HCFC Blend B (CF3CCl 2H, Ar, and CF4)

D6268-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HFC-125, Pentafluoroethane (C2HF5)

D6231/D6231M-21 Standard Specification for HFC-125 (Pentafluoroethane, C2HF5)

D8060-21 Standard Specification for 2-Bromo-3,3,3-Trifluoro-1-Propene (CF3CBr=CH2)

D6427-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of HFC-236fa, 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoropropane (CF3CH2CF3)

D7324-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of IG-55 Ar N2

D7673/D7673M-21 Standard Specification for Halon 1211, Bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2BrCl)

D5631-21 Standard Practice for Handling, Transportation, and Storage of Halon 1301, Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br)

D5632/D5632M-17(2022) Standard Specification for Halon 1301, Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br)

D6064-11(2022) Standard Specification for HFC-227ea, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (CF3CHFCF3)

Flame and Thermal

F1358/F1358M-20 Standard Test Method for Effects of Flame Impingement on Materials Used in Protective Clothing Not Designated Primarily for Flame Resistance

F2701-08 Standard Test Method for Evaluating Heat Transfer through Materials for Protective Clothing Upon Contact with a Hot Liquid Splash (Withdrawn 2017)

F2733-21 Standard Specification for Flame-Resistant Rainwear for Protection Against Flame Hazards

F2894-21 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Materials, Protective Clothing, and Equipment for Heat Resistance Using a Hot Air Circulating Oven

F1930-18 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame-Resistant Clothing for Protection Against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin

F1060-18 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Conductive and Compressive Heat Resistance (CCHR)

F2731-18 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Transmitted and Stored Energy of Firefighter Protective Clothing Systems

F2757-20 Standard Guide for Home Laundering Care and Maintenance of Flame Resistant or Arc Rated Clothing

F1449-20 Standard Guide for Industrial Laundering Care and Maintenance of Flame Resistant or Arc Rated Clothing

F2702-15 Standard Test Method for Radiant Heat Performance of Flame Resistant Clothing Materials with Burn Injury Prediction (Withdrawn 2020)

F1939-15(2020) Standard Test Method for Radiant Heat Resistance of Flame Resistant Clothing Materials with Continuous Heating

F2700-08(2020) Standard Test Method for Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Evaluation of Flame-Resistant Materials for Clothing with Continuous Heating

F955-15(2021) Standard Test Method for Evaluating Heat Transfer Through Materials for Protective Clothing Upon Contact with Molten Substances

F1002-15(2021) Standard Performance Specification for Protective Clothing and Materials for Use by Workers Exposed to Specific Molten Substances and Related Thermal Hazards

F2703-21 Standard Test Method for Unsteady-State Heat Transfer Evaluation of Flame-Resistant Materials for Clothing with Burn Injury Prediction

F2302-22 Standard Performance Specification for Labeling Protective Clothing Which Provides Resistance to Incidental Exposures to Heat or Open Flame

F3538-22 Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transmission Through Flame-Resistant Materials for Clothing in Flame Exposure Using a Cylindrical Specimen Holder

Halogenated Organics Used as Feed Stocks

D7509-09(2021) Standard Specification for Fluorocarbon Feedstock Grade Chloroform

Health and Safety Standards for Metal Working Fluids

E1687-19 Standard Test Method for Determining Carcinogenic Potential of Virgin Base Oils in Metalworking Fluids

E2250-02 Standard Method for Determination of Endotoxin Concentration in Water Miscible Metal Working Fluids (Withdrawn 2008)

E3265-21 Standard Guide for Evaluating Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluid Foaming Tendency

E1302-13(2017) Standard Guide for Acute Animal Toxicity Testing of Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids

E2889-12(2017) Standard Practice for Control of Respiratory Hazards in the Metal Removal Fluid Environment

E1497-17 Standard Practice for Selection and Safe Use of Water-Miscible and Straight Oil Metal Removal Fluids

E2523-13(2018) Standard Terminology for Metalworking Fluids and Operations

E2564-18 Standard Practice for Enumeration of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids by Direct Microscopic Counting (DMC) Method

E2563-18 Standard Practice for Enumeration of Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Aqueous Metalworking Fluids by Plate Count Method

E2693-19 Standard Practice for Prevention of Dermatitis in the Wet Metal Removal Fluid Environment

E1972-04(2011) Standard Practice for Minimizing Effects of Aerosols in the Wet Metal Removal Environment (Withdrawn 2017)

E2148-21 Standard Guide for Using Documents Related to Metalworking or Metal Removal Fluid Health and Safety

E2694-21 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Adenosine Triphosphate in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids

E2144-21 Standard Practice for Personal Sampling and Analysis of Endotoxin in Metalworking Fluid Aerosols in Workplace Atmospheres

E2657-21 Standard Practice for Determination of Endotoxin Concentrations in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids

E2169-22 Standard Practice for Selecting Antimicrobial Pesticides for Use in Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids

Industrial Heath

E3279-21 Standard Guide for Managing Heat Stress and Heat Strain in Foundries

E2565-21 Standard Guide for Consensus-Based Process for an Occupational Safety and Health Standard That Includes an Occupational Exposure Guideline

E2350-19 Standard Guide for Integration of Ergonomics/Human Factors into New Occupational Systems

E2625-19 Standard Practice for Controlling Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica for Construction and Demolition Activities

E2920-19 Standard Guide for Recording Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

E1132-21 Standard Practice for Health Requirements Relating to Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

Industrial Safety

E2706-18 Standard Practice for Equipment Technology and Operations for Mobile and Plant-Based Secure Destruction Safety Requirements

E1575-18 Standard Practice for Pressure Water Cleaning and Cutting

E2349-19 Standard Practice for Safety Requirements in Metal Casting Operations: Sand Preparation, Molding, and Core Making; Melting and Pouring; and Cleaning and Finishing

E2875/E2875M-12(2021) Standard Guide for Personal Protective Equipment for the Handling of Flat Glass

Inspection and Non-Destructive Test Methods for Aerial Devices

F1430/F1430M-20 Standard Test Method for Acoustic Emission Testing of Insulated and Non-Insulated Aerial Personnel Devices with Supplemental Load Handling Attachments

F914/F914M-20 Standard Test Method for Acoustic Emission for Aerial Personnel Devices Without Supplemental Load Handling Attachments

F2973-21 Standard Specification for Insulating Lifting Links for Load Lifting Equipment Working Near Energized Power Lines

F2174-02(2019) Standard Practice for Verifying Acoustic Emission Sensor Response

F1797-18(2022) Standard Test Method for Acoustic Emission Testing of Insulated and Non-Insulated Digger Derricks

Insulating Cover-Up Equipment

F712-06(2018) Standard Test Methods and Specifications for Electrically Insulating Plastic Guard Equipment for Protection of Workers

F2320-18 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Sheeting

D178-19 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Matting

F478-14a(2019) Standard Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Line Hose and Covers

F1742-03(2020) Standard Specification for PVC Insulating Sheeting

F968-93(2002)e1 Standard Specification for Electrically Insulating Plastic Guard Equipment for Protection of Workers (Withdrawn 2008)

D1050-05(2022) Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Line Hose

F479-06(2022) Standard Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Blankets

D1049-98(2022) Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Covers

D1048-22 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets

Mechanical Apparatus

F2715-19 Standard Specification for Temporary Protective Equipotential Bond Mat To Be Used on De-Energized Equipment

F2321-14(2020) Standard Specification for Flexible and Rigid Insulated Temporary By-Pass Jumpers

F855-20 Standard Specifications for Temporary Protective Grounds to Be Used on De-energized Electric Power Lines and Equipment

F2249-20e1 Standard Specification for In-Service Test Methods for Temporary Grounding Jumper Assemblies Used on De-Energized Electric Power Lines and Equipment

Physical

F2992/F2992M-15 Standard Test Method for Measuring Cut Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing with Tomodynamometer (TDM-100) Test Equipment

F1458-15 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Cut Resistance to Chainsaw of Foot Protective Devices

F1818-15 Standard Specification for Foot Protection for Chainsaw Users

F3324-19 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Cut Resistance to Chainsaw in Leg-Protective Devices

F2878-19 Standard Test Method for Protective Clothing Material Resistance to Hypodermic Needle Puncture

F1414-19 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Cut Resistance to Chainsaw in Lower Body (Legs) Protective Clothing

F1897-20 Standard Specification for Leg Protection for Chain Saw Users

F3325-20 Standard Specification for Leg-Protective Devices for Chainsaw Users

F1790/F1790M-15(2021) Standard Test Method for Measuring Cut Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing with CPP Test Equipment

F1342/F1342M-05(2022) Standard Test Method for Protective Clothing Material Resistance to Puncture

PPE Conformity Assessment, Interoperability and Compatibility

F3050-22a Standard Guide for Conformity Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment

Radiological Hazards

F3094-14 Standard Test Method for Determining Protection Provided by X-ray Shielding Garments Used in Medical X-ray Fluoroscopy from Sources of Scattered X-Rays

F2547-18 Standard Test Method for Determining the Attenuation Properties in a Primary X-ray Beam of Materials Used to Protect Against Radiation Generated During the Use of X-ray Equipment

Respiratory

F3387-19 Standard Practice for Respiratory Protection

F3407-21 Standard Test Method for Respirator Fit Capability for Negative-Pressure Half-Facepiece Particulate Respirators

F3537-21 Standard Guide for Respirator Fit Testing Methods

F3502-22a Standard Specification for Barrier Face Coverings

Terminology

F1236-19 Standard Guide for Visual Inspection of Electrical Protective Rubber Products

F819-10(2015) Standard Terminology Relating to Electrical Protective Equipment for Workers

Test Methods

D2942-02(2018) Standard Test Method for Total Acid Acceptance of Halogenated Organic Solvents (Nonreflux Methods)

D2108-10(2020) Standard Test Method for Color of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures (Platinum-Cobalt Scale)

D2251-10(2020) Standard Test Method for Metal Corrosion by Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D3444-00(2020) Standard Test Method for Total Acid Number of Trichlorotrifluoroethane

D3443-00(2020) Standard Test Method for Chloride in Trichlorotrifluoroethane

D4494-95(2020) Standard Test Method for Detecting Residual Odor of Drycleaning Grade Perchloroethylene

D1901-10(2020) Standard Test Method for Relative Evaporation Time of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D2111-10(2020) Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity and Density of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D2988-96(2020) Standard Test Methods for Water-Soluble Halide Ion in Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D3448-10(2020) Standard Test Method for Specific Aqueous Conductance of Trichlorotrifluoroethane

D4755-95(2020) Standard Test Method for Free Halogens in Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D3741-00(2020) Standard Test Methods for Appearance of Admixtures Containing Halogenated Organic Solvents

D3447-01 Standard Test Method for Purity of Halogenated Organic Solvents (Withdrawn 2004)

D2943-02(2012) Standard Test Method for Aluminum Scratch of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane to Determine Stability (Withdrawn 2017)

D5320-96(2000) Standard Test Methods for Determination of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Methylene Chloride Content in Stabilized Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene (Withdrawn 2004)

D3742-98 Standard Test Method for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Content (Withdrawn 2003)

D6505-00(2022) Standard Test Method for Assay of normal-Propyl Bromide Content

D2106-07(2022) Standard Test Methods for Determination of Amine Acid Acceptance (Alkalinity) of Halogenated Organic Solvents

D6806-02(2022) Standard Practice for Analysis of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures by Gas Chromatography

D2110-00(2022) Standard Test Method for pH of Water Extractions of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D2109-01(2022) Standard Test Methods for Nonvolatile Matter in Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D2989-01(2022) Standard Test Method for Acidity-Alkalinity of Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

D3316-06(2022) Standard Test Method for Stability of Perchloroethylene with Copper

D3401-97(2022) Standard Test Methods for Water in Halogenated Organic Solvents and Their Admixtures

Tools & Equipment

F3283/F3283M-18 Standard Specification for the Manufacturing of High-Voltage Proximity Alarm to be used for the Detection of Overhead High Voltage Alternating Current (AC)

F1826-00(2021) Standard Specification for Live Line and Measuring Telescoping Tools

F711-17 Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live Line Tools 

F2522-12(2017) Standard Test Method for Determining the Protective Performance of a Shield Attached on Live Line Tools or on Racking Rods for Electric Arc Hazards

F1701-12(2018) Standard Specification for Unused Rope with Special Electrical Properties

F2939-13(2019)e1 Standard Specification for High Voltage Phasing Testers

F1796-19 Standard Specification for High Voltage Detectors—Part 1 Capacitive Type to be Used for Voltages Exceeding 600 Volts AC

F1825-03(2019) Standard Specification for Clampstick Type Live Line Tools

F1564-13(2019)e1 Standard Specification for Structure-Mounted Insulating Work Platforms for Electrical Workers

F3121/F3121M-17e1 Standard Guide for In-Service Inspection, Maintenance, and Electrical Testing of Hand-Held Live-Line Insulating Tools (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP))

F1505-16(2021) Standard Specification for Insulated and Insulating Hand Tools

Vapor Degreasing

D4579-00(2017) Standard Practice for Handling an Acid Degreaser or Still

D6368-06(2018) Standard Specification for Vapor-Degreasing Solvents Based on normal-Propyl Bromide and Technical Grade normal-Propyl Bromide

D5960-03(2018) Standard Specification for Technical Grade Ethylene Dichloride

D5395-03(2018) Standard Specification for Reclaimed Methylene Chloride

D4276-02(2020) Standard Practice for Confined Area Entry

D4080-15(2020) Standard Specification for Trichloroethylene, Technical and Vapor-Degreasing Grade

D4376-15(2020) Standard Specification for Vapor-Degreasing Grade Perchloroethylene

D5396-04(2020) Standard Specification for Reclaimed Perchloroethylene

D3698-04(2020) Standard Practice for Solvent Vapor Degreasing Operations

D5248-04(2020) Standard Specification for Reclaimed 1,1,2-Trichloro 1,2,2-Trifluoroethane

D4126-02(2012) Standard Specification for Vapor-Degreasing Grade and General Solvent Grade 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Withdrawn 2017)

D5394-02(2012) Standard Specification for Reclaimed 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Withdrawn 2017)

D5616-04(2022) Standard Specification for Reclaimed Trichloroethylene

D4079-00(2022) Standard Specification for Vapor-Degreasing Grade Methylene Chloride

Wearing Apparel

F1959/F1959M-14e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Arc Rating of Materials for Clothing

F3272-18 Standard Guide for Selection, Care, and Use of Arc Protective Blankets

F1891-19 Standard Specification for Arc and Flame Resistant Rainwear

F2676-19 Standard Test Method for Determining the Protective Performance of an Arc Protective Blanket for Electric Arc Hazards

F1958/F1958M-12 Standard Test Method for Determining the Ignitability of Non-flame-Resistant Materials for Clothing by Electric Arc Exposure Method Using Mannequins (Withdrawn 2021)

F1506-22 Standard Performance Specification for Flame Resistant and Electric Arc Rated Protective Clothing Worn by Workers Exposed to Flames and Electric Arcs

F2621/F2621M-22 Standard Practice for Evaluating Response Characteristics of Safety Products in an Electric Arc Exposure

F2178/F2178M-22 Standard Specification for Arc Rated Eye or Face Protective Products

F2675/F2675M-22e1 Standard Test Method for Determining Arc Ratings of Hand Protective Products Developed and Used for Electrical Arc Flash Protection

Worker Personal Equipment

D1051-19 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Sleeves

F3258-21 Standard Specification for Protectors for Rubber Insulating Gloves Meeting Specific Performance Requirements

F1116-21 Standard Test Method for Determining Dielectric Strength of Dielectric Footwear

F696-06(2019) Standard Specification for Leather Protectors for Rubber Insulating Gloves and Mittens

F2677-08a(2019) Standard Specification for Electrically Insulating Aprons

F1117-03(2019) Standard Specification for Dielectric Footwear

F496-20 Standard Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating Gloves and Sleeves

F887-20 Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment

D120-22 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves