ASTM's glass and ceramic standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and evaluating the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of various materials and products made of glass, ceramic, or clay. These materials are fabricated for a variety of purposes including arts and aesthetics, foodware, whiteware, flooring and tiles, and other industrial applications. These glass and ceramic standards help materials science laboratories, material processing companies, product manufacturers, and other users of such materials and products in their proper fabrication and treatment procedures to ensure good quality and workmanship towards safe utilization.

Glass Standards and Ceramic Standards

ASTM's glass and ceramic standards are instrumental in specifying, testing, and evaluating the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of various materials and products made of glass, ceramic, or clay. These materials are fabricated for a variety of purposes including arts and aesthetics, foodware, whiteware, flooring and tiles, and other industrial applications. These glass and ceramic standards help materials science laboratories, material processing companies, product manufacturers, and other users of such materials and products in their proper fabrication and treatment procedures to ensure good quality and workmanship towards safe utilization.

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Applications

C1674-16 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics with Engineered Porosity (Honeycomb Cellular Channels) at Ambient Temperatures

C1323-22 Standard Test Method for Ultimate Strength of Advanced Ceramics with Diametrally Compressed C-Ring Specimens at Ambient Temperature

C1624-22 Standard Test Method for Adhesion Strength and Mechanical Failure Modes of Ceramic Coatings by Quantitative Single Point Scratch Testing

Ceramic Matrix Composites

D3379-75(1989)e1 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength and Young's Modulus for High-Modulus Single-Filament Materials (Withdrawn 1998)

C1783-15 Standard Guide for Development of Specifications for Fiber Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite Structures for Nuclear Applications

C1793-15 Standard Guide for Development of Specifications for Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide-Silicon Carbide Composite Structures for Nuclear Applications

C1773-21 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Axial Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature

C1819-21 Standard Test Method for Hoop Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composite Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature Using Elastomeric Inserts

C1337-17 Standard Test Method for Creep and Creep Rupture of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics Under Tensile Loading at Elevated Temperatures

C1360-17 Standard Practice for Constant-Amplitude, Axial, Tension-Tension Cyclic Fatigue of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures

C1899-21 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature

C1275-18 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Behavior of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross-Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature

C1863-18 Standard Test Method for Hoop Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composite Tubular Test Specimens at Ambient Temperature Using Direct Pressurization

C1341-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites

C1358-18 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Compressive Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics with Solid Rectangular Cross Section Test Specimens at Ambient Temperatures

C1869-18 Standard Test Method for Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramic Composites

C1359-18e1 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Tensile Strength Testing of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics With Solid Rectangular Cross Section Test Specimens at Elevated Temperatures

C1835-16 Standard Classification for Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide-Silicon Carbide (SiC-SiC) Composite Structures

C1425-19 Standard Test Method for Interlaminar Shear Strength of 1D and 2D Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures

C1468-19a Standard Test Method for Transthickness Tensile Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

C1836-16 Standard Classification for Fiber Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite Structures

C1557-20 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength and Young's Modulus of Fibers

C1292-22 Standard Test Method for Shear Strength of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures

C1469-22 Standard Test Method for Shear Strength of Joints of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

Ceramic Tile

C501-21 Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by the Taber Abraser

C502-16 Standard Test Method for Wedging of Flat, Rectangular Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile

C485-16 Standard Test Method for Measuring Warpage of Ceramic Tile

C1026-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Resistance of Ceramic and Glass Tile to Freeze-Thaw Cycling

C627-18 Standard Test Method for Evaluating Ceramic Floor Tile Installation Systems Using the Robinson-Type Floor Tester

C1870-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Impact Diameter from Falling Ball on Ceramic Tile

C1027-19 Standard Test Method for Determining Visible Abrasion Resistance of Glazed Ceramic Tile

C895-87(2019) Standard Test Method for Lead and Cadmium Extracted from Glazed Ceramic Tile

C1243-93(2015)e2 Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Deep Abrasive Wear of Unglazed Ceramic Tile by Rotating Disc

C484-20 Standard Test Method for Thermal Shock Resistance of Glazed Ceramic Tile

C648-20 Standard Test Method for Breaking Strength of Ceramic Tile

C482-20 Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Paste

C1028-07e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Static Coefficient of Friction of Ceramic Tile and Other Like Surfaces by the Horizontal Dynamometer Pull-Meter Method (Withdrawn 2014)

C1378-20 Standard Test Method for Determination of Resistance to Staining

C650-20 Standard Test Method for Determination of Resistance to Chemical Substances

C1895-20 Standard Test Method for Determination of Mohs Scratch Hardness

C609-20 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Light Reflectance Value and Small Color Differences Between Pieces of Ceramic Tile

C499-20 Standard Test Method for Facial Dimensions and Thickness of Flat, Rectangular Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile

C483-95(2000) Standard Test Method for Electrical Resistance of Conductive Ceramic Tile (Withdrawn 2004)

C1505-15(2022) Standard Test Method for Determination of Breaking Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Ceramic Tiles and Glass Tiles by Three-Point Loading

Chemical Properties and Analysis

C813-20 Standard Test Method for Hydrophobic Contamination on Glass by Contact Angle Measurement

C146-21 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Glass Sand

C429-21 Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Raw Materials for Glass Manufacture

C169-16(2022) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soda-Lime and Borosilicate Glass

C912-17(2022) Standard Practice for Designing a Process for Cleaning Technical Glasses

C225-85(2022) Standard Test Methods for Resistance of Glass Containers to Chemical Attack

Editorial and Terminology

F109-21 Standard Terminology Relating to Surface Imperfections on Ceramics

C242-21 Standard Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products

Flat Glass

C1908-21 Standard Test Method for Pummel Adhesion Testing of Two-ply Laminated Architectural Glass

C1900-20 Standard Practice for Weathering and Evaluation of Laminated Glass

C1422/C1422M-20a Standard Specification for Chemically Strengthened Flat Glass

C1503-18 Standard Specification for Silvered Flat Glass Mirror

C1036-21 Standard Specification for Flat Glass

C1914-21 Standard Test Method for Bake and Boil Testing of Laminated Glass

C1048-18 Standard Specification for Heat-Strengthened and Fully Tempered Flat Glass

C1172-19 Standard Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Glass

C1279-13(2019) Standard Test Method for Non-Destructive Photoelastic Measurement of Edge and Surface Stresses in Annealed, Heat-Strengthened, and Fully Tempered Flat Glass

C1349-17 Standard Specification for Architectural Flat Glass Clad Polycarbonate

C1377-97(2009) Standard Test Method for Calibration of Surface/Stress Measuring Devices (Withdrawn 2014)

C1443-99(2016) Standard Specification for Glasses, Portlight, Circular, Fully Tempered (Withdrawn 2021)

C1901-21e2 Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Retardation in Flat Architectural Glass

C1376-21a Standard Specification for Pyrolytic and Vacuum Deposition Coatings on Flat Glass

C1464-21 Standard Specification for Bent Glass

Glass Containers

C147-86(2020) Standard Test Methods for Internal Pressure Strength of Glass Containers

C149-14(2020) Standard Test Method for Thermal Shock Resistance of Glass Containers

C224-78(2020) Standard Practice for Sampling Glass Containers

C148-17(2022) Standard Test Methods for Polariscopic Examination of Glass Containers

Glass Decoration

C777-04(2019) Standard Test Method for Sulfide Resistance of Ceramic Decorations on Glass

C735-04(2019) Standard Test Method for Acid Resistance of Ceramic Decorations on Returnable Beer and Beverage Glass Containers

C676-04(2019) Standard Test Method for Detergent Resistance of Ceramic Decorations on Glass Tableware

C978-04(2019) Standard Test Method for Photoelastic Determination of Residual Stress in a Transparent Glass Matrix Using a Polarizing Microscope and Optical Retardation Compensation Procedures

C927-80(2019)e1 Standard Test Method for Lead and Cadmium Extracted from the Lip and Rim Area of Glass Tumblers Externally Decorated with Ceramic Glass Enamels

C1203-04(2019) Standard Test Method for Quantitative Determination of Alkali Resistance of a Ceramic-Glass Enamel

C724-91(2020) Standard Test Method for Acid Resistance of Ceramic Decorations on Architectural-Type Glass

C824-91(2020) Standard Practice for Specimen Preparation for Determination of Linear Thermal Expansion of Vitreous Glass Enamels and Glass Enamel Frits by Dilatometer Method

C675-91(2022) Standard Test Method for Alkali Resistance of Ceramic Decorations on Returnable Beverage Glass Containers

Mechanical Properties and Performance

C1525-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Thermal Shock Resistance for Advanced Ceramics by Water Quenching

C1366-19 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength of Monolithic Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures

C1499-19 Standard Test Method for Monotonic Equibiaxial Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

C1834-16 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Elevated Temperatures

C1495-16 Standard Test Method for Effect of Surface Grinding on Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics

C1576-05(2017) Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Ambient Temperature

C1862-17 Standard Test Method for the Nominal Joint Strength of End-Plug Joints in Advanced Ceramic Tubes at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

C1326-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics

C1259-21 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Impulse Excitation of Vibration

C1684-18 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature—Cylindrical Rod Strength

C1211-18 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures

C1368-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Rate Strength Testing at Ambient Temperature

C1421-18 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

C1291-18 Standard Test Method for Elevated Temperature Tensile Creep Strain, Creep Strain Rate, and Creep Time to Failure for Monolithic Advanced Ceramics

C1239-13(2018) Standard Practice for Reporting Uniaxial Strength Data and Estimating Weibull Distribution Parameters for Advanced Ceramics

C1273-18 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength of Monolithic Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures

C1161-18 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

C1361-10(2019) Standard Practice for Constant-Amplitude, Axial, Tension-Tension Cyclic Fatigue of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures

C1327-15(2019) Standard Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics

C1683-10(2019) Standard Practice for Size Scaling of Tensile Strengths Using Weibull Statistics for Advanced Ceramics

C1424-15(2019) Standard Test Method for Monotonic Compressive Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

C1465-08(2019) Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Elevated Temperatures

C1198-20 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Sonic Resonance

C1322-15(2019) Standard Practice for Fractography and Characterization of Fracture Origins in Advanced Ceramics

Methods for Whitewares and Environmental Concerns

C1035-85(1995) Standard Specification for Lead and Cadmium Extracted from Glazed Ceramic Cookware (Withdrawn 2001)

C1034-85(1995) Standard Test Method for Lead and Cadmium Extracted From Glazed Ceramic Cookware (Withdrawn 2001)

D1829-90(1999) Standard Test Method for Electrical Resistance of Ceramic Materials at Elevated Temperatures (Withdrawn 2001)

D2757-86(1999) Standard Specification for Impervious Steatite Ceramics for Electrical and Electronic Applications (Withdrawn 2001)

F77-69(1996) Test Method for Apparent Density of Ceramics for Electron Device and Semiconductor Application (Withdrawn 2001)

F394-78(1996) Test Method for Biaxial Flexure Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Ceramic Substrates (Withdrawn 2001)

F417-78(1996) Test Method for Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Electronic-Grade Ceramics (Withdrawn 2001)

F356-75(1996) Specification for Beryllia Ceramics for Electronic and Electrical Applications (Withdrawn 2001)

F865-84(1996) Test Methods for Gross Camber of Ceramic Substrates for Thick Film Applications (Withdrawn 2001)

C1605-04(2014) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Ceramic Whiteware Materials Using Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

C584-81(2016) Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Glazed Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products

C674-13(2018) Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Ceramic Whiteware Materials

C373-18 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Water Absorption and Associated Properties by Vacuum Method for Pressed Ceramic Tiles and Glass Tiles and Boil Method for Extruded Ceramic Tiles and Non-tile Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products

C1023-10(2018) Standard Practice for Labeling Ceramic Art Materials for Chronic Adverse Health Hazards

C1606-10(2018) Standard Test Method for Sampling Protocol for TCLP Testing of Container Glassware

C408-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Thermal Conductivity of Whiteware Ceramics

C556-16(2020) Standard Test Method for Resistance of Overglaze Decorations to Attack by Detergents

C368-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Ceramic Tableware

C370-12(2020) Standard Test Method for Moisture Expansion of Fired Whiteware Products

C329-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity of Fired Ceramic Whiteware Materials

C372-94(2020) Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Porcelain Enamel and Glaze Frits and Fired Ceramic Whiteware Products by Dilatometer Method

C424-93(2020) Standard Test Method for Crazing Resistance of Fired Glazed Whitewares by Autoclave Treatment

C554-93(2020) Standard Test Method for Crazing Resistance of Fired Glazed Ceramic Whitewares by a Thermal Shock Method

C1300-95(2020) Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Glaze Frits and Ceramic Whiteware Materials by Interferometric Method

C849-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Ceramic Whitewares

C1545-02(2020) Standard Practice for Dispersing Pigments and Other Materials Into Water-Based Suspensions With High Intensity Mixer

C1466-00(2020) Standard Test Method for Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Lead and Cadmium Extracted From Ceramic Foodware

C848-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio For Ceramic Whitewares by Resonance

C773-88(2020) Standard Test Method for Compressive (Crushing) Strength of Fired Whiteware Materials

D2442-75(2020) Standard Specification for Alumina Ceramics for Electrical and Electronic Applications

C1510-01(2020) Standard Test Method for Color and Color Difference of Whitewares by Abriged Spectrophotometry

D116-86(2020) Standard Test Methods for Vitrified Ceramic Materials for Electrical Applications

C1607-12(2020) Standard Test Method for Determination of “Microwave Safe for Reheating” for Ceramicware

C738-94(2020) Standard Test Method for Lead and Cadmium Extracted from Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

C949-80(2020) Standard Test Method for Porosity in Vitreous Whitewares by Dye Penetration

Nomenclature and Definitions

C162-05(2015) Standard Terminology of Glass and Glass Products

Nomenclature and Editorial

C1145-19 Standard Terminology of Advanced Ceramics

C1286-94 Standard Classification for Advanced Ceramics (Withdrawn 2002)

Optical Properties

C1649-14(2021) Standard Practice for Instrumental Transmittance Measurement of Color for Flat Glass, Coated and Uncoated

C1650-14(2021) Standard Practice for Instrumental Reflectance Measurement of Color for Flat Glass, Coated, and Uncoated

C1651-11(2018) Standard Test Method for Measurement of Roll Wave Optical Distortion in Heat-Treated Flat Glass

C1648-12(2018) Standard Guide for Choosing a Method for Determining the Index of Refraction and Dispersion of Glass

C1652/C1652M-21 Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Distortion in Flat Glass Products Using Digital Photography of Grids

Physical and Mechanical Properties

C623-21 Standard Test Method for Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio for Glass and Glass-Ceramics by Resonance

C158-02(2017) Standard Test Methods for Strength of Glass by Flexure (Determination of Modulus of Rupture)

C965-96(2017) Standard Practice for Measuring Viscosity of Glass Above the Softening Point

C338-93(2019) Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Glass

C598-93(2019) Standard Test Method for Annealing Point and Strain Point of Glass by Beam Bending

C693-93(2019) Standard Test Method for Density of Glass by Buoyancy

C1256-93(2019) Standard Practice for Interpreting Glass Fracture Surface Features

C1350M-96(2019) Standard Test Method for Measurement of Viscosity of Glass Between Softening Point and Annealing Range (Approximately 108 Pa·s to Approximately 1013 Pa·s) by Beam Bending (Metric)

F14-80(2019) Standard Practice for Making and Testing Reference Glass-Metal Bead-Seal

F79-69(2019) Standard Specification for Type 101 Sealing Glass

F144-80(2019) Standard Practice for Making Reference Glass-Metal Sandwich Seal and Testing for Expansion Characteristics by Polarimetric Methods

F105-72(2019) Standard Specification for Type 58 Borosilicate Sealing Glass

C657-19 Standard Test Method for D-C Volume Resistivity of Glass

F140-98(2020) Standard Practice for Making Reference Glass-Metal Butt Seals and Testing for Expansion Characteristics by Polarimetric Methods

F218-13(2020) Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Retardation and Analyzing Stress in Glass

C770-16(2020) Standard Test Method for Measurement of Glass Stress—Optical Coefficient

C1426-14(2020) Standard Practices for Verification and Calibration of Polarimeters

C336-71(2020) Standard Test Method for Annealing Point and Strain Point of Glass by Fiber Elongation

C730-98(2021) Standard Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Glass

C729-11(2022) Standard Test Method for Density of Glass by the Sink-Float Comparator

C829-81(2022) Standard Practices for Measurement of Liquidus Temperature of Glass by the Gradient Furnace Method

C1351M-96(2022) Standard Test Method for Measurement of Viscosity of Glass Between 104 Pa·s and 108 Pa·s by Viscous Compression of a Solid Right Cylinder [Metric]

Physical Properties and Non-Destructive Evaluation

C1678-21 Standard Practice for Fractographic Analysis of Fracture Mirror Sizes in Ceramics and Glasses

C1212-98(2015) Standard Practice for Fabricating Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Voids (Withdrawn 2018)

C1494-13(2018) Standard Test Methods for Determination of Mass Fraction of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Silicon Nitride Powder

C1070-01(2020) Standard Test Method for Determining Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz by Laser Light Scattering

C1470-20 Standard Guide for Testing the Thermal Properties of Advanced Ceramics

C1274-12(2020) Standard Test Method for Advanced Ceramic Specific Surface Area by Physical Adsorption

C1336-96(2014) Standard Practice for Fabricating Non-Oxide Ceramic Reference Specimens Containing Seeded Inclusions (Withdrawn 2018)

C1175-99a(2010) Standard Guide to Test Methods and Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Advanced Ceramics (Withdrawn 2018)

C1282-08 Standard Test Method for Determining the Particle Size Distribution of Advanced Ceramics by Centrifugal Photosedimentation (Withdrawn 2014)

C1730-17(2022) Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Advanced Ceramics by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation

Raw Materials

C721-20 Standard Test Methods for Estimating Average Particle Size of Alumina and Silica Powders by Air Permeability

C323-56(2016) Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Ceramic Whiteware Clays

C322-09(2018) Standard Practice for Sampling Ceramic Whiteware Clays

C326-09(2018) Standard Test Method for Drying and Firing Shrinkages of Ceramic Whiteware Clays

C371-09(2018) Standard Test Method for Wire-Cloth Sieve Analysis of Nonplastic Ceramic Powders

C689-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Unfired Clays

C837-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Methylene Blue Index of Clay

C690-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz Powders by Electrical Sensing Zone Technique

C925-09(2019) Standard Guide for Precision Electroformed Wet Sieve Analysis of Nonplastic Ceramic Powders

C1182-09(2019) Standard Test Method for Determining the Particle Size Distribution of Alumina by Centrifugal Photosedimentation

C325-07(2022) Standard Guide for Wet Sieve Analysis of Ceramic Whiteware Clays

C866-11(2022) Standard Test Method for Filtration Rate of Ceramic Whiteware Clays

C867-94(2022) Standard Test Method for Soluble Sulfate in Ceramic Whiteware Clays (Photometric Method)

C958-92(2022) Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation

C1069-09(2022) Standard Test Method for Specific Surface Area of Alumina or Quartz by Nitrogen Adsorption

C324-01(2022)e1 Standard Test Method for Free Moisture in Ceramic Whiteware Clays