ASTM's coal and gas standards are instrumental in the testing and chemical analysis of coal, coke, natural gas and other gaseous fuels, as well as the combustion residues of coal and coke. The materials specifically covered by these standards can be in the form of lump coke, pulverized coal, bituminous coal, coke and coal ash, reformed gas, and polishing and etching coal. These standards also include the thermophysical property tables for methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, and isobutane. These standards allow laboratories and other chemical facilities to examine and assess these fuels to ensure safe handling and use.

Coal Standards and Gas Standards

ASTM's coal and gas standards are instrumental in the testing and chemical analysis of coal, coke, natural gas and other gaseous fuels, as well as the combustion residues of coal and coke. The materials specifically covered by these standards can be in the form of lump coke, pulverized coal, bituminous coal, coke and coal ash, reformed gas, and polishing and etching coal. These standards also include the thermophysical property tables for methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, and isobutane. These standards allow laboratories and other chemical facilities to examine and assess these fuels to ensure safe handling and use.

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Analysis of Chemical Composition of Gaseous Fuels

D7833-20 Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrocarbons and Non-Hydrocarbon Gases in Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography

D1945-14(2019) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography

D1988-20 Standard Test Method for Mercaptans in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes

D4888-20 Standard Test Method for Water Vapor in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes

D4810-20 Standard Test Method for Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes

D4984-20 Standard Test Method for Carbon Dioxide in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes

D1946-90(2019) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography

Collection and Measurement of Gaseous Samples

D1071-17 Standard Test Methods for Volumetric Measurement of Gaseous Fuel Samples

D5287-08(2015) Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Gaseous Fuels

D5503-94(2008) Standard Practice for Natural Gas Sample-Handling and Conditioning Systems for Pipeline Instrumentation (Withdrawn 2017)

Determination of Heating Value and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels

D4891-13(2018) Standard Test Method for Heating Value of Gases in Natural Gas and Flare Gases Range by Stoichiometric Combustion

D8221-18ae1 Standard Practice for Determining the Calculated Methane Number (MNC) of Gaseous Fuels Used in Internal Combustion Engines

D1070-03(2017) Standard Test Methods for Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels

D3588-98(2017)e1 Standard Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels

D1826-94(2017) Standard Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter

Determination of Special Constituents of Gaseous Fuels

D6273-20 Standard Test Method for Natural Gas Odor Intensity

D8230-19 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Volatile Silicon-Containing Compounds in a Gaseous Fuel Sample Using Gas Chromatography with Spectroscopic Detection

D7800/D7800M-14 Standard Test Method for Determination of Elemental Sulfur in Natural Gas

D6968-03(2015) Standard Test Method for Simultaneous Measurement of Sulfur Compounds and Minor Hydrocarbons in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Atomic Emission Detection

D7551-10(2015) Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Natural Gas by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

D6350-14 Standard Test Method for Mercury Sampling and Analysis in Natural Gas by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

D5504-20 Standard Test Method for Determination of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Chemiluminescence

D1142-95(2021) Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels by Measurement of Dew-Point Temperature

D6228-19 Standard Test Method for Determination of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Flame Photometric Detection

D4468-85(2015) Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry

D4084-07(2017) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Gaseous Fuels (Lead Acetate Reaction Rate Method)

D5454-11(2020) Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels Using Electronic Moisture Analyzers

D1072-06(2017) Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Fuel Gases by Combustion and Barium Chloride Titration

D5954-22 Standard Test Method for Mercury Sampling and Measurement in Gaseous Fuels by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

D7550-09 Standard Test Method for Determination of Ammonium, Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals in Hydrogen and Other Cell Feed Gases by Ion Chromatography (Withdrawn 2017)

D7941/D7941M-14 Standard Test Method for Hydrogen Purity Analysis Using a Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer

D7634-10(2017) Standard Test Method for Visualizing Particulate Sizes and Morphology of Particles Contained in Hydrogen Fuel by Microscopy

D7606-17 Standard Practice for Sampling of High Pressure Hydrogen and Related Fuel Cell Feed Gases

D7651-17 Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Measurement of Particulate Concentration of Hydrogen Fuel

D7652-11 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbonyl Sulfide, Methyl Mercaptan, Carbon Disulfide and Total Sulfur in Hydrogen Fuel by Gas Chromatography and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection (Withdrawn 2020)

D7676-18 Standard Practice for Screening Organic Halides Contained in Hydrogen or Other Gaseous Fuels

D7653-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Gaseous Contaminants in Hydrogen Fuel by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

D7649-19 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Carbon Dioxide, Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Water in Hydrogen Fuel by Jet Pulse Injection and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer Analysis

D7650-21 Standard Practice for Sampling of Particulate Matter in High Pressure Gaseous Fuels with an In-Stream Filter

D7675-22 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen by FID-Based Total Hydrocarbon (THC) Analyzer

D7892-22 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Organic Halides, Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, and Formaldehyde in Hydrogen Fuel by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

Major Elements in Ash and Trace Elements of Coal

D6349-21 Standard Test Method for Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Coal, Coke, and Solid Residues from Combustion of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometry

D8339-20 Standard Test Method for The Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization Solids by Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis

D2795-95 Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Coal and Coke Ash (Withdrawn 2001)

D6721-01(2015) Standard Test Method for Determination of Chlorine in Coal by Oxidative Hydrolysis Microcoulometry

D6316-17 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total, Combustible and Carbonate Carbon in Solid Residues from Coal and Coke

D3761-10 Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method (Withdrawn 2019)

D8213-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Boron in Coal

D5016-16 Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Coal and Coke Combustion Residues Using a High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Method with Infrared Absorption

D8247-19 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Fluorine and Total Chlorine in Coal by Oxidative Pyrohydrolytic Combustion Followed by Ion Chromatography Detection

D5987-96(2015) Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal and Coke by Pyrohydrolytic Extraction and Ion Selective Electrode or Ion Chromatograph Methods (Withdrawn 2020)

D6722-19 Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Direct Combustion Analysis

D4326-21 Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence

D3684-01(2006) Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Atomic Absorption Method (Withdrawn 2014)

D3683-11 Standard Test Method for Trace Elements in Coal and Coke Ash by Atomic Absorption (Withdrawn 2018)

D1757-03 Standard Test Method for Sulfate Sulfur in Ash from Coal and Coke (Withdrawn 2009)

D6414-14 Standard Test Methods for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Acid Extraction or Wet Oxidation/Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption

D7348-21 Standard Test Methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI) of Solid Combustion Residues

D4606-21 Standard Test Method for Determination of Arsenic and Selenium in Coal by the Hydride Generation/Atomic Absorption Method

D6357-21b Standard Test Methods for Determination of Trace Elements in Coal, Coke, and Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and Graphite Fur

D3682-21 Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes by Atomic Spectrometry

Metallurgical Properties of Coal and Coke

D291/D291M-20 Standard Test Method for Bulk Density of Crushed Bituminous Coal

D167/D167M-21a Standard Test Method for Apparent and True Specific Gravity and Porosity of Lump Coke

D720/D720M-15e1 Standard Test Method for Free-Swelling Index of Coal

D3402/D3402M-16 Standard Test Method for Tumbler Test for Coke

D5341/D5341M-19 Standard Test Method for Measuring Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength After Reaction (CSR)

D3038-93(2018) Standard Test Method for Drop Shatter Test for Coke

D293/D293M-18 Standard Test Method for the Sieve Analysis of Coke

D2014/D2014M-20 Standard Test Method for Expansion or Contraction of Coal by the Sole-Heated Oven

D2639/D2639M-21a Standard Test Method for Plastic Properties of Coal by the Constant-Torque Gieseler Plastometer

D5263-21 Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Degree of Oxidation in Bituminous Coal by Alkali Extraction

D5515-22 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Swelling Properties of Bituminous Coal Using a Dilatometer

Methods of Analysis

D3172-13(2021)e1 Standard Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke

D5373-21 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in Analysis Samples of Coal and Carbon in Analysis Samples of Coal and Coke

D7569/D7569M-10(2015)e1 Standard Practice for Determination of Gas Content of Coal—Direct Desorption Method

D3180-15 Standard Practice for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Different Bases

D3176-15 Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke

D8010-18 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Soluble Alkali Content in Coal

D1857/D1857M-18 Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash

D3173/D3173M-17a Standard Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke

D4208-19 Standard Test Method for Total Chlorine in Coal by the Oxygen Vessel Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method

D8214-18 Standard Test Method for Forms of Sulfur in Coal by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

D5865/D5865M-19 Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke

D4239-18e1 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion

D1412/D1412M-20 Standard Test Method for Equilibrium Moisture of Coal at 96 to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30 °C

D2961/D2961M-19 Standard Practice for Single-Stage Total Moisture Less than 15 % in Coal Reduced to 2.36 mm [No. 8 Sieve] Topsize

D7582-15 Standard Test Methods for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke by Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis

D3177-02(2007) Standard Test Methods for Total Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke (Withdrawn 2012)

D3175-20 Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke

D3179-02e1 Standard Test Methods for Nitrogen in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke (Withdrawn 2008)

D1756-02(2007) Standard Test Method for Determination as Carbon Dioxide of Carbonate Carbon in Coal (Withdrawn 2013)

D3178-89(2002) Standard Test Methods for Carbon and Hydrogen in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke (Withdrawn 2007)

D2361-02 Standard Test Method for Chlorine in Coal (Withdrawn 2008)

D5142-09 Standard Test Methods for Proximate Analysis of the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke by Instrumental Procedures (Withdrawn 2010)

D3174-12(2018)e1 Standard Test Method for Ash in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke from Coal

D2492-02(2012) Standard Test Method for Forms of Sulfur in Coal (Withdrawn 2021)

D3302/D3302M-22 Standard Test Method for Total Moisture in Coal

On-Line/At-Line Analysis of Gaseous Fuels

D7314-21 Standard Practice for Determination of the Heating Value of Gaseous Fuels using Calorimetry and On-line/At-line Sampling

D7164-21 Standard Practice for On-line/At-line Heating Value Determination of Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography

D7165-10(2015) Standard Practice for Gas Chromatograph Based On-line/At-line Analysis for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels

D7166-10(2015) Standard Practice for Total Sulfur Analyzer Based On-line/At-line for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels

D7493-14(2018) Standard Test Method for Online Measurement of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatograph and Electrochemical Detection

D7607/D7607M-19 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Oxygen in Gaseous Fuels (Electrochemical Sensor Method)

D8000-15(2020) Standard Practice for Flow Conditioning of Natural Gas and Liquids

D7904-21 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Vapor (Moisture Concentration) in Natural Gas by Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLAS)

D7940-21 Standard Practice for Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by Fiber-Coupled Raman Spectroscopy

D8455-22 Standard Test Method for Speciated Siloxane GC-IMS Analyzer Based On-line for Siloxane and Trimethylsilanol Content of Gaseous Fuels

Petrographic Analysis of Coal and Coke

D5671-20 Standard Practice for Polishing and Etching Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light

D2798-21 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Vitrinite Reflectance of Coal

D3997/D3997M-16 Standard Practice for Preparing Coke Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light

D2797/D2797M-21a Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light

D5061-19 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Textural Components of Metallurgical Coke

D7708-14 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Reflectance of Vitrinite Dispersed in Sedimentary Rocks

D2799-21 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Maceral Composition of Coal

Physical Characteristics of Coal

D6542-05(2018)e1 Standard Practice for Tonnage Calculation of Coal in a Stockpile

D6347/D6347M-05(2018) Standard Test Method for Determination of Bulk Density of Coal Using Nuclear Backscatter Depth Density Methods

D6172/D6172M-18 Standard Test Method for Determining the Volume of Bulk Materials Using Contours or Cross Sections Created by Direct Operator Compilation Using Photogrammetric Procedures

D5114/D5114M-90(2018)e1 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Froth Flotation of Coal in a Mechanical Cell

D409/D409M-16 Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method

D440-07(2019)e1 Standard Test Method of Drop Shatter Test for Coal

D197-19 Standard Test Method for Sampling and Fineness Test of Pulverized Coal

D441-07(2019)e1 Standard Test Method of Tumbler Test for Coal

D4749/D4749M-87(2019)e1 Standard Test Method for Performing the Sieve Analysis of Coal and Designating Coal Size

D4371/D4371M-06(2019)e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Washability Characteristics of Coal

D8215-21 Standard Practice for Statistical Modeling of Uncertainty in Assessment of In-place Coal Resources

Sampling

D4915-96 Standard Guide for Manual Sampling of Coal from Tops of Railroad Cars (Withdrawn 2003)

D6315-98e1 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Coal from Tops of Barges (Withdrawn 2003)

D388-19a Standard Classification of Coals by Rank

D7430/D7430M-21 Standard Practice for Mechanical Sampling of Coal

D6609-17 Standard Guide for Part-Stream Sampling of Coal

D6883-17 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Stationary Coal from Railroad Cars, Barges, Trucks, or Stockpiles

D346/D346M-11(2019)e1 Standard Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory Analysis

D6543-20 Standard Guide to the Evaluation of Measurements Made by Online Coal Analyzers

D6518-07 Standard Practice for Bias Testing a Mechanical Coal Sampling System (Withdrawn 2008)

D4916-04 Standard Practice for Mechanical Auger Sampling (Withdrawn 2008)

D4702-07 Standard Practice for Quality Management of Mechanical Coal Sampling Systems (Withdrawn 2008)

D7256/D7256M-08 Standard Practice for Mechanical Collection and Within-System Preparation of a Gross Sample of Coal from Moving Streams (Withdrawn 2008)

D6610-01a Standard Practice for Manual Sampling Coal from Surfaces of a Stockpile (Withdrawn 2003)

D2234/D2234M-20 Standard Practice for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal

D2013/D2013M-21 Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Analysis

D4596-22 Standard Practice for Collection of Channel Samples of Coal in a Mine

D5192/D5192M-22 Standard Practice for Collection of Coal Samples from Core

Statistics

D6796-21e1 Standard Practice for Production of Coal, Coke and Coal Combustion Samples for Interlaboratory Studies

D121-15 Standard Terminology of Coal and Coke

D7448-16 Standard Practice for Establishing the Competence of Laboratories Using ASTM Procedures in the Sampling and Analysis of Coal and Coke

Terminology Classification and Specifications

D8080-21 Standard Specification for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Used as a Motor Vehicle Fuel

D4150-21b Standard Terminology Relating to Gaseous Fuels

Thermophysical Properties

D4362-19 Standard Specification for Propane Thermophysical Property Tables

D4650-19 Standard Specification for Normal Butane Thermophysical Property Tables

D4784-93(2015) Standard Specification for LNG Density Calculation Models

D4651-14(2020) Standard Specification for Isobutane Thermophysical Property Tables

D3984-19 Standard Specification for Ethane Thermophysical Property Tables

D7265-12(2018) Standard Specification for Hydrogen Thermophysical Property Tables

D3956-12(2018) Standard Specification for Methane Thermophysical Property Tables