Laser shock peening (LSP) has evolved as a viable alternative to other surface treatments (shot peening, burnishing, etc.) that induce beneficial residual stress in structural components. While fatigue life improvements have been recognized by the aerospace industry, in-service components may have surface flaws with sizes below current inspection limits. A concern is that the application of LSP over an existing crack may cause unintended detrimental consequences. To address this concern, two different LSP processes were applied over a 0.25 in. (6.35 mm) partial through-thickness surface fatigue crack in 7075-T651 aluminum. The resulting residual stresses were measured using combinations of included X-ray diffraction with layer removal, incremental center-hole drilling, and neutron diffraction. Both LSP processes resulted in a through-thickness residual stress profile in which compressive stresses at either surface were balanced by tensile stresses in a band centered in the mid-thickness of the specimen. Peened and unpeened (baseline) specimens were then tested under constant-amplitude cyclic loading to assess the fatigue response. The average fatigue life of the baseline specimens was about 49,000 cycles. The peened specimens (both treatments) survived to runout, exhibiting no crack growth when examined with an optical microscope even when the crack tip was either very close to or inside the region of tensile residual stress.