Although the science and art of metallography was founded in Germany by Rose and Vogel, and in England by Sorby, it rapidly developed in the United States in parallel with the growth of the American Industrial Revolution. This was especially true with the growth of railroads, shipping, tall buildings construction (steel, copper alloys) and then automobiles and civilian and military aircraft (aluminum). The pioneers in light optical microscopy were from Harvard (Sauveur), Columbia University (Howe), and Lehigh University (Stoughton, Pulsifer, and Kehl). Lehigh then became a world leader in both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (Goldstein and Williams, among others). The Summer Microscopy School at Lehigh is now the world leader in this area and has operated for over 46 years. Students and graduates of Lehigh have been awarded more prizes at the International Metallographic Contest of IMS than any other institution, academic or industrial. This paper highlighted the developments in equipment, the research programs, and the people who participated in these endeavors.
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