In this paper, the results of a study aimed at understanding the extrinsic influence of test specimen orientation, with respect to a wrought alloy-steel plate, on the stress-controlled cyclic fatigue properties and fracture behavior of a structural steel is highlighted. The alloy steel chosen was ASTM A572 grade 50. Samples of this alloy steel, prepared from both the longitudinal and transverse orientations, were cyclically deformed over a range of maximum stress and the corresponding number of cycles to failure (NF) was recorded. The influence of test specimen orientation and intrinsic microstructural effects on cyclic fatigue life and fracture behavior are presented and discussed. Overall, the macroscopic fracture mode was essentially identical regardless of orientation of the test specimen with respect to the wrought plate. The microscopic mechanisms governing cyclic deformation, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented in light of the mutually interactive influences of magnitude of applied stress, intrinsic microstructural effects, orientation of test specimen, and deformation characteristics of the key microstructural constituents.