Early detection of fatigue processes in the cyclically loaded metastable austenitic steel AISI 347 was performed by electromagnetic acoustic transducer measurements in total strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue tests at ambient and elevated temperature. The changes in the physical data were interpreted via microstructural changes observed by scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy, as well as x-ray investigations. The application of physically based measurement data, e.g., time-of-flight from electromagnetically activated ultrasonic signals in austenitic fatigue specimens and total strain, enables measurements of a new hysteresis relationship. In analogy to the common stress–strain hysteresis, this hysteresis gives information about the actual state of fatigue and shows significant changes in shape before specimen failure.
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