In order to study the carbide transformation during tempering, a modified model has been proposed to simulate the phase composition and mechanical properties during the tempering process in tool steels. The model considers the simultaneous precipitation reactions of several carbides. The precipitation sequence and volume fraction of a carbide can be simulated quantitatively. In order to validate the model, we employed it to simulate the tempering process of SKD11 steel. The predicted volume fraction of retained austenite showed good agreement with measurement results. Furthermore, the calculated carbide results agreed well with the theoretical conclusions. The agreement indicates that the model is effective for simulation of the tempering process in tool steel.
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