This article presents a one-dimensional mathematical model to simulate the lime-burning process in normal shaft kilns. The model comprises ordinary differential equations derived from the principal conservations of mass and energy. A shrinking core approach is employed to describe the mechanisms and to calculate the decomposition rate of limestone particles. The model is used to simulate the temperature of the gas and the solid, the lime-burning degree, the pressure drop, and the heat loss by kiln shell. Operating conditions, such as kiln throughput, energy consumption, and stone size, are also investigated by the model. Experiments were carried out to measure temperatures in industrial kilns. Maximum temperatures were observed in the region of 1.0–2.0 m above the burner level. The kiln temperature is about 1600°C. Comparisons of the experiments and simulations show that the temperatures measured in the kilns are very close to the solid temperatures predicted by simulations. The results of simulations and those of experiments are in good agreement. The results of this study can be direct utility for the regulation and optimization of industrial lime shaft kilns.
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