There are 820 million vehicles in the world today, and with the progressive growth of the automotive sector in developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, etc., the number of vehicles worldwide is predicted to reach 1 billion by 20202. Passenger cars and commercial light vehicles have been estimated1 to account for 20 % of the total CO2 delivered into the atmosphere from hydrocarbon sources in the United States and other developed countries, indicating the level of impact of the automotive sector on the environment. As such, the technological improvement on fuel economy will have a great impact in reducing the CO2 emissions. Reduction of mechanical losses in internal combustion (IC) engines as prime drivers in the automotive industry is an action with immediate effect toward increasing the fuel economy through improving engine efficiency.
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