MANUAL Published: 29 April 2013

Future Directions in Petroleum and Natural Gas Refining


The global energy system is at a junction where current energy demand is soaring while the supply options are unsustainable, and which are limited by environmental legislations as well as economic constraints. Fossil fuel is the world's primary source of energy and will remain so for many years. However, in order to prevent disastrous damage to the global environment, a major decarbonization of world energy sources will be required. Fossil fuel refineries are moving toward heavy or extra-heavy exploration and require new upgrading technologies that lead to cleaner fuel and fulfill the growing demand for the lighter fraction. In addition, demand for natural gas is gradually increasing and hydrogen is proposed to play an important part as an energy carrier whereas the use of biomass will develop, but at a modest level. New techniques for testing that are being developed for fossil-fuel gases are reported along with their consequences such as gas-, biomass-, and even coal-to-liquid technologies with a view to cutting costs and providing better environmental concerns. Biodiesel fuel contains inferior energy density to petroleum diesel fuel, but combusts more thoroughly and reduces the amount of toxic exhaust emissions. The biofuel corresponds to a small but substantial way of breaking total reliance on fossil fuels. In summary, refineries of the future will be more technology-based industries with more valuable products. The objective of this review is to confer a new resource covering all subjects of importance to those who are involved in the energy sector. The data presented on the amount of oil and gas reserves vary from one source to another; however, they provide a general picture of how many hydrocarbon resources remain and how long they will last. The content of this chapter is a compilation by experts in the field of recent advances and processing techniques, plant design, economical issues, environmental considerations, storage and distribution of products, product quality and specifications, market demand and forecasting, inspection and maintenance, safety issues, management of the industry, and international import/export and regulations.

Author Information

Rana, Mohan, S.
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), KW
Ancheyta, Jorge
Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Mexico City, MX
Riazi, M., R.
Kuwait University, KW
Marafi, Meena
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), KW
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 769–799
DOI: 10.1520/MNL5820131214533
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-8681-1
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7022-3