This chapter provides various methods to evaluate the friction and wear properties of lubricants and materials. If friction and wear can be easily studied and controlled, then the engineer can select materials and lubricants with a high degree of confidence. Many laboratory tests are used to evaluate the interaction of materials under a broad range of test conditions and controlled environments. In this chapter, the following topics will be discussed: history of tribology testing; basic types of tribology test systems and reasons for their use; fundamentals in designing tribology tests; selection of a test device to simulate a field condition; contact geometry used in bench tests; standard and commonly used test devices; design of special application bench tests; related standardized test methods; common terminology relating to friction and wear testing.
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