MANUAL Published: 08 November 2019
MNL3720170001

Chapter 39 | Properties of Fuels, Petroleum Pitch, Petroleum Coke, and Carbon Materials

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This chapter provides an overview on the origin, properties, and applications of fuel oils, petroleum pitch, petroleum coke, and some related carbon materials along the line of production that connects petroleum refining to the manufacture of carbon materials. Bottom fractions of the liquid products from a petroleum refining process, Fluid Catalytic Cracking, constitute the decant oil (FCC DO) and thermal cracking of naphtha produces ethylene tar as the bottom liquid product. FCC decant oil and ethylene tar can be used as residual fuel oil or as feedstocks to produce carbon black, petroleum pitch, and premium petroleum coke used along with coal tar pitch to manufacture graphite electrodes. Petroleum pitch, in turn, is used for production of carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composite materials and for densification of graphite electrodes used in electric-arc furnaces to recycle scrap iron and steel. The residua from vacuum distillation in petroleum refining are subjected to severe thermal cracking in coking processes to produce light and medium distillates and petroleum cokes that are used as solid fuel or as filler to manufacture carbon anodes for electrochemical production of metallic aluminum. It is important to recognize that ferrous metals and light metals industries, as well as manufacturing a number of carbon materials, are closely linked with the products of petroleum refining, including FCC DOs, petroleum pitch, and petroleum coke. For each material, production processes, product properties, and specifications are discussed in the context of their respective industrial applications. Standard methods used for the characterization of these materials are identified with a focused discussion on the interpretation of the results obtained from the standard tests.

Author Information

Eser, Semih
Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, US
Andrésen, John
Dept. of Energy and Mineral Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, US
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Details
Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 1327–1361
DOI: 10.1520/MNL3720170001
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7090-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7089-6