MANUAL Published: 08 November 2019

Chapter 20 | Automotive Engine Lubricants


Because of the recent emerging powertrain technologies, including gasoline direct injection and turbocharged and hybrid vehicles, advanced technologies are critical to meet fuel economy and reduced emission targets that will generate unique opportunities for future propulsion systems. This chapter will start with a brief introduction of current automotive lubricant development activities and address the impact of these powertrain technologies on future engine lubricant requirements. Aside from new hardware and changes in material and surfaces technologies, several advanced lubricant technologies, such as friction modifiers, antiwear additive chemistries, low-viscosity lubricants, alternative base oils, and the introduction of new VI improvers, all represent possible tribological solutions in order to respond to the challenge of meeting more stringent environmental legislation and energy efficiency requirements. This new chapter has provided an update on the recent engine-oil development activities for both GF-6 and PC-11 specifications because of the challenging impacts of emerging powertrain technology on future engine-oil requirements. In addition, this chapter was written based on our perspectives, assessments, and justifications based on new information, including all global energy technology development strategies, core engine technology assessment, and advanced lubricant oil formulation requirements for eminent powertrain technology. The last part of this chapter has also surveyed some recent advances in tribological, metallurgical, and lubrication science that suggest lubrication avenues with the potential to provide significant benefits to engine protection and fuel economy.

Author Information

Girard, Luc
Sanjuro Consulting Inc., Mississauga, CA
Tung, Simon
Tung Innovation Technology Consulting Inc., Rochester Hills, MI, US
Woydt, Mathias
Bam Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, DE
Bachelder, Dennis
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, US
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 753–863
DOI: 10.1520/MNL3720160034
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7090-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7089-6