Synthetic lubricants are used in applications in which the technical, environmental, or regulatory requirements cannot be met by mineral oil-based lubricants. Some lubricant applications require certain attributes that only water as a component in the lubricant can provide. Water has a greater specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity than mineral oil, making it a desirable component in lubricants having a primary function to dissipate heat. Water also being nonflammable serves as the basis for several types of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids, which are designated as HFA, HFB, and HFC fluids. This chapter provides information on the composition, manufacture, properties, and performance of these fire-resistant fluids, as well as the applications and markets they are used in. The major global standards for the evaluation, registration, and certification of these fire-resistant fluids are also reviewed.
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