Once limited to the separation of colored chemical species, chromatography today is a powerful analytical technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of the components of mixtures of gases and liquids. ASTM International Committee D02 on Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants has developed a number of liquid, gas, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and gel permeation chromatography methods that, along with other ASTM test methods, enable the refining and lubricants industry to characterize highly complex mixtures, such as crude oils, as well as the intermediate and final products of the refining process. This chapter describes these standard test methods and explains the significance of their use.
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