MANUAL Published: 08 November 2019

Chapter 45 | Environmental Characteristics of Fuels and Lubricants


In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in environmentally acceptable (EA) and environmentally compliant or environmentally considerate fuels and lubricants. The biobased stocks are currently considered EA products due to their environmental properties, such as a high biodegradability, low toxicity, and no bioaccumulation. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has defined EA lubricants based on their environmental properties and issued the Vessel General Permit guide. In response to the demand of EA fuels and lubricants, many oil companies have formulated EA products for limited applications. To explore further this developing technology, research has already been, or is being, conducted in broad science fields using biobased oils. To support this technology, this chapter details vital information on current environment technologies such as environmental standard test methods (biodegradation, toxicity) and explains physicochemical properties of substances. In the summary section, the environmental test methods are also evaluated. In addition, the end of this chapter includes a terminology section.

Author Information

Hinman, Mark
ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ, US
Rhee, In-Sik
U.S. Army Tank-Automotive RD&E Center, Warren, MI, US
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Developed by Committee: D02
Pages: 1539–1564
DOI: 10.1520/MNL3720150025
ISBN-EB: 978-0-8031-7090-2
ISBN-13: 978-0-8031-7089-6