Interest in the tribological performance of ionic liquids (ILs) has increased significantly since they were first introduced as lubricants in 2001. The primary advantages of ILs over conventional lubricants lie in their better ability to form tribofilms, higher thermal stability, environmental friendliness, and adaptability to various applications. Remarkable reduction of friction and wear has been observed after the addition of ILs in oil- or water-based media, suggesting that ILs are promising candidate materials as neat lubricants as well as lubricant additives. Despite the relatively common utilization of ILs as lubricating media, their wider use is limited by their high cost and corrosive properties. This chapter provides a brief introduction to relevant IL structures and properties, focusing on recent applications of the materials in engineering tribology.
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