Petroleum products, including fuels and lubricants, contain many trace elements in various concentration ranges. A number of analytical techniques are used for the determination of the elemental concentration of these materials. The techniques include classical wet chemistry, combustion methods, atomic absorption spectrometry (including flame and graphite furnace techniques), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, microelemental methods, and neutron activation analysis. This chapter includes discussion of sample preparation for analysis, and the individual techniques with some typical applications in the oil industry. It also includes discussion of ASTM proficiency testing programs, international test methods harmonization, and quality control.
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