NOTE: IT MUST BE POINTED OUT THAT FROM AN ASTM standpoint, this chapter is mainly included for historical purposes. In general, ASTM no longer deals with the standard test methods and specifications for drying oils in paints and coatings. This activity is dealt with by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) with research and technology in the area reported in the Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Since the ASTM documents listed in the previous edition of this manual are found in the technical literature, this chapter provides a route to the past, some information about recent activities in the area, and information about AOCS's current role. As indicated, many of the ASTM documents listed in the previous edition of this chapter are no longer available from ASTM. Those applicable ASTM standards that can be downloaded from ASTM are so indicated. A listing of some AOCS documents that refer to drying oils can be found in Table 5. Drying oils represent a small portion of the huge fats and oils industry. Soybeans are the largest oilseed crop with a U.S. farm value of about $12.5 billion in 2000/2001. This oil accounts for about 90 % of U.S. oilseed production with the remainder comprised of oils such as cottonseed, sunflower seed, flaxseed, canola, linseed, and other oils. Argentina and Brazil are also important soybean growers and processors. Drying oils are included in the oilseed category. In regard to coatings, the industry is very mature with relatively little growth expected. The paint and coating industry's need for drying oils is in an overall decline along with other end use markets, such as binders for hardboard, sealants, plasticizers, linoleum, and core oils. Drying oils used in paints and coatings are being replaced with oil-free, synthetic, petroleum-derived oligomeric and polymeric binders carried in a variety of media or in a neat manner. The printing ink market is the only one expected to have small growth in the area of drying oils. However, because drying oils have certain desirable attributes and represent a readily available renewable resource, interest is being renewed in certain oils through sponsorship by interested organizations and through new opportunities for modified vegetable oils. In the United States, the United Soybean Board is funding research dealing with catalysts for radiation curing of epoxidized soybean oil at Bowling Green State University's Center for Photochemical Sciences [1,2]. Other investigators are studying the use of soybean oil modifications in water-borne paints, high solids coatings, and inks . In Malaysia, where palm oil is readily available, research is being conducted at the School of Industrial Technology at Universiti Sains Malaysis on epoxidized and acrylated derivatives of palm oil [4,5]. Again, the studies deal with using the products in the rapidly growing radiation curing market . Oilseed Growers LLC has members who have commercially produced carambe oil in the United States since 1996 . This oil is rich in mono unsaturated erucic acid, and it is used as a food emulsifier, as an ingredient in industrial slip agents, pour point depressants, lubricants, hair care, textile softening, and other end uses.